Moreover, it seems to form a set with Les Bergeries. This latter piece, though more melodic than Les Barricades, set in a higher register and more bucolic in feeling, is an exercise in using a repetitive motif to build sound without seeming mechanical or repetitive. While the title reflects the musical structure, there may be more at play; the suggestion of barricades is "a double entendre referring to feminine virginity and the suspensions harmonic of the music, lute figurations are imitated to produce an enigmatic stalemate", as Judith Robison Kipnis explained the work's title and its interpretation by her husband Igor Kipnis.
The piece has been used as a source of inspiration by many others across different artistic fields including music, visual arts and literature. Some have used the title while others have created new works inspired by the original. On the album "Bhajebochstiannanas" by Anthony Newman. Rerecorded in the same year to be the title track of the German film Zischke.
Mid's solo percussion and el. The Palace was stripped of all its furnishings after the French Revolution, but many pieces have been returned and many of the palace rooms have been restored. It was owned by the priory of Saint Julian. King Henry IV went hunting there in , returned in and , staying in the village inn. After he became King in , Louis XIII returned to the village, bought some land, in built a modest two-story hunting lodge on the site of the current marble courtyard, he was staying there in November during the event known as the Day of the Dupes , when the enemies of the King's chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu , aided by the King's mother, Marie de' Medici , tried to take over the government.
The King sent his mother into exile. The gardens and park were enlarged, laid out by Jacques Boyceau and his nephew, Jacques de Menours, reached the size they have today. He added two wings to the forecourt, one for servants quarters and kitchens, the other for stables. The main floor of the new palace contained two symmetrical sets of apartments, one for the king and the other for the queen, looking over the gardens; the two apartments were separated by a marble terrace, overlooking the garden, with a fountain in the center.
Each set of apartments was connected to the ground floor with a ceremonial stairway, each had seven rooms, aligned in a row. On the ground floor under the King's apartment was another apartment, the same size, designed for his private life, decorated on the theme of Apollo, the Sun god, his personal emblem. Under the Queen's apartment was the apartment of the Grand Dauphin , the heir to the throne; the interior decoration was assigned to Charles Le Brun.
Le Brun supervised the work of a large group of sculptors and painters, called the Petite Academie, who crafted and painted the ornate walls and ceilings. Le Brun supervised the design and installation of countless statues in the gardens.
The grand stairway to the King's apartment was soon redecorated as soon as it was completed with plaques of colored marble and trophies of arms and balconies , so the members of the court could observe the processions of the King. In , Le Vau added a new pavilion northwest of the chateau, called the Trianon, for the King's relaxation in the hot summers, it was surrounded by flowerbeds and decorated with blue and white porcelain , in imitation of the Chinese style.
The King spent his days in Versailles , the government and courtiers, numbering six to seven thousand persons, crowded into the buildings; the King ordered a further enlargement, which he entrusted to the young architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart.
Warner Classics. In art, the term refers to the treatment of any subject a figure, group, locale, motif, convention or melody in a particularly grand or exalted manner. Passacaille, Les Nations: Suite No. Courante Noblement, Les Nations. Gilbert, Bach, ex Bwv
Hadouin-Mansart added two large new wings on either side of the original Cour Royale , he replaced Le Vau's large terrace, facing the garden on the west, with what bec. With the early music revival , it became one of the primary sources for the keyboard fingering system which prevailed in Europe during the Baroque era, it sheds light on the ornamentation used at the time. It is considered one of the most significant surviving treatises of the period. L'art de toucher le clavecin was one of the last books to include unmeasured preludes, along with Nicolas Siret's second volume of harpsichord pieces.
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Related Images. YouTube Videos. The palace in during the first reconstruction. Painting by Pierre Patel. Couperin anon. It was first published in , and was followed by a revised edition in Kennedy from January until his assassination in November Senator John F. Kennedy and Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy on their wedding day, September 12, Jacqueline Kennedy standing over her husband, John F.
Kennedy , after his spinal surgery, December Jacqueline with her husband as he campaigns for the presidency in Appleton, Wisconsin , March With 7. Benin ivory mask , Iyoba, 16th-century Nigeria. The Prodigal Son in the Tavern , a self-portrait with Saskia, c. Portrait of Saskia van Uylenburgh , c.
Rembrandt's son Titus, as a monk , Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Gloria: 4e Couplet. Gloria: 5e Couplet. Gloria: 6e Couplet. Dialogue sur la voix humaine Messe pour les Couvents: II. Gloria: 8e Couplet. Recit de tierce Messe pour les Couvents: II. Dialogue sur les grands jeux Messe pour les Couvents: II. Gloria: Premier Couplet. Sanctus: 2e Couplet. Sanctus: Elevation.
Sanctus: Premier Couplet du Sanctus. Plein jeu Messe pour les Couvents: V. Agnus Dei: 2e Couplet. Agnus Dei: Deo gratias. O Jesu salus lux et vita Motets extraits Motets. Tout est perdu! Gavotte, Les Nations. Air Gracieusement, Les Nations. Allemande Sans Lenteur, Les Nations. Menuet, Les Nations. Hotteterre Marion Moonen , Les Nations. Premiere Courante Noblement, Les Nations. Rondement, Les Nations. Sarabande Gravement, Les Nations.
Gigue, Les Nations. Seconde Courante, Les Nations. Rondeau Gayement, Les Nations. Sarabande Tendrement, Les Nations. Second Air, Les Nations. Air Tendre, Les Nations. Allemande Gracieusement, Les Nations. Courante Noblement, Les Nations. Rondeau, Les Nations. Passacaille, Les Nations: Suite No.
Allemande, Les Nations: Suite No. Seconde courante, Les Nations: Suite No. Menuet, Les Nations: Suite No.
Sarabande, Les Nations: Suite No. Gigue, Les Nations: Suite No. Gavotte, Les Nations: Suite No. Courante, Les Nations: Suite No. Rondeau, Les Nations: Suite No. Chaconne, Les Nations: Suite No. Chaconne, Les Nations. Couperin Michael Borgstede , Les Nations. Messe pour les couvents. Fugette Pieces De Violes: 2eme Suite. Plein chant de l'Agnus Dei en Basse et en Taille alternativement. Et in terra pax.
Point du Jour. Allemande, L'Auguste Premier ordre de clavecin en sol mineur: No. Les Sentimens, sarabande Premier ordre de clavecin en sol mineur: No. La Pastorelle Premier ordre de clavecin en sol mineur: No. La Bourbonnoise, gavotte Premier ordre de clavecin en sol mineur: No. La Manon Premier ordre de clavecin en sol mineur: No. L'Enchanteresse Premier ordre de clavecin en sol mineur: No. Seconde Courante Premier ordre de clavecin en sol mineur: No.
Sarabande, La Majestueuse Premier ordre de clavecin en sol mineur: No. Gavotte Premier ordre de clavecin en sol mineur: No. La Milordine, gigue Premier ordre de clavecin en sol mineur: No. Menuet et Double Premier ordre de clavecin en sol mineur: No. Les Silvains Premier ordre de clavecin en sol mineur: No. Le Petit-rien Quatre versets d'un motet : I. Tabescere me fecit Quatre versets du motet: II. Ignitum eloquium Quatre versets du motet: III. Adolescentulus sum ego Quatre versets du motet: III.
Adolescentus sum ego Quatre versets du motet: IV. Air tendre Second Concert: IV. Gravement, Et Gracieusem. Les Amusemens Sezile. Gaiment, La Steinkerque : II. Gravement, La Steinkerque : IV. Air tendre, La Superbe: VI. Adolescentulus sum Versets Les Tambourins Violins 2 , continuo music.
Selections Visionaire, La Visionnaire, violins 2 , continuo Vocal music. Selections voluptueuse Werke, Org Works. Contributed to or performed. Vol de Mercure Descente d'Apollon Remerciment de Lulli Rumeur souterraine Apollon persuade Lulli Second air We meet jugglers, acrobats, beggars, fiddlers, bears and monkeys, and also disabled people. That probably refers to the habit of exhibiting that sort of people in a kind of freak show. The present sensitivity towards physical disabilities didn't exist in those days.
And while Couperin may never have written an opera, he was certainly interested in the theatre. Some pieces are dramatic in character, like 'La Dangereuse' 5e Ordre , or programmatic, like a battle-scene La Triomphante, 10e Ordre or a description of the stages in human life Les Petits Ages, 7e Ordre.
In addition there are many references to nature and the life at the countryside. And there is also 'Les Langueurs tendres'; the languidness the title refers to could well be the effect of the summer heat on the countryside. Couperin couldn't ignore some of the most common musical forms in those days.
Therefore the 8e Ordre contains a Passacaille. It is one of Couperin's most famous and intriguing compositions: here not only the bass is repeated time and again during the whole piece - as usual in a passacaille - but also the opening statement, to which Couperin returns many times. It is also characterised by strong harmonic tensions. Lastly: in his oeuvre Couperin shows a preference for "quiet music and inner expression", as a commentator stated.
One of the most impressive examples of this inner expression is 'Les Ombres errantes', whose deep sadness is expressed in strong sighing figures, chromaticism and dissonances. It is one of the darkest pieces of all four books. Before talking about the qualities of Michael Borgstede's interpretation, let me concentrate on the technicalities. Borgstede uses two harpsichords, both built by the Dutch harpsichord builder Titus Crijnen. The first - used in the books 1 to 3 - is a copy of a Ruckers, dating from This is a little surprising as it seems a little unlikely that in Couperin's time such an early instrument would have been used.
It is a beautiful specimen, but its tone is a little too aggressive. I find the second instrument, after an original by Henri Hemsch from , more appropriate to Couperin's music.
This was common practice at the time, and another piece, 'Le Rossignol-en-amour' 14e Ordre , is frequently performed with a transverse flute in the upper part. The recording engineer has done a good job: the recording is crisp and clear, and the microphones have been close enough to the harpsichord to make all lines clearly audible without creating a sound which is too obtrusive.
Only on the first couple of discs did I hear some noises which should have been filtered out. Sometimes Borgstede taking his hands off the harpsichord at the end of a piece causes some unpleasant noises. As far as the presentation is concerned, Michael Borgstede has written interesting programme notes, but a more extensive explanation of the titles would not have done any harm. The print of the tracklists on the covers of the individual discs is rather small and the red colour of the covers doesn't make it any easier to read them.
The duration of the discs on the cover is seldom correct. And although the first Ordres seem to consist of pieces put together more or less at random, I am not happy with the fact that the 2e Ordre, by far the longest of all, is divided over two discs.
The 1er and 3e Ordre could easily been put on one disc, and the whole 3e Ordre on another. Lastly: the pauses between the Ordres are too short. But far more important are Michael Borgstede's interpretations, and I have to say that I am very impressed by his performances. There is great variety in Couperin's oeuvre for the harpsichord, and he himself stated that not every player is capable of playing everything equally convincing: "Experience has taught me that vigorous hands capable of the fastest and lightest playing do not always have the most success with tender and expressive pieces".
There can be no doubt that Borgstede has "vigorous hands" which are capable of playing fast pieces. An impressive example is the previously mentioned 'Les Fastes de la grande et ancienne Mxnxstrxndxsx' from the 11e Ordre: the depiction of a circus ends in complete chaos, and this piece should be played "very fast" - and that is what Borgstede does in a most impressive way. I am happy to report that in general Borgstede is also equally convincing in the "tender and expressive pieces". The tempo and registration of 'La Lugubre' 3e Ordre is excellently suited to express its dark mood.
And 'Le Rossignol-en-amour' can't be given a more moving performance with a transverse flute than it gets here, in a brilliant timing. Michael Borgstede is the keyboard player of the ensemble Musica ad Rhenum, which pays great attention to the dramatic and emotional character of baroque music. Therefore one may expect to recognize those qualities in Borgstede's performances here, and he does not disappoint in this respect. The contrast between pieces within a particular Ordre, or between sections within a single piece are generally very well realised. I feel that freedom is a little lacking here: I would have liked a more imaginative approach.
Sometimes the tenderness a piece requires isn't fully realised. On the other hand, in 'Les langueurs tendres' 6e Ordre the languidness is brilliantly expressed.