https://hosenoliper.ml/christian-prayerbooks/whatchamacallit.pdf II Davoli, Olaf E. Kaper, and H. Baillie, M. Baines, Johns, "Interpretations of religion: logic, discourse, rationality," GM 76 : 25— Bakr, A. Brania A. Balls, W. Banschikova, Anastasia A. Barakat, Aly A. Praha: Universitas Carolina Pragensis, Barsanti, A. Abusir and Saqqara in the year Praha: Set Out, Baskakov, A.
Basson, A. Bauval, Robert G. Beaux, Nathalie and S. Halbjahr : Beinlich, Horst Das Totenbuch bei Tutanchamun. Beinlich, Horst Carte geografiche, elenchi topografici, processioni, testi di esecrazione. In: Petruccioli, Sandro Hrsg. Rom , pp. Beinlich, Horst Von der Spitze zur Basis. Geburtstages von Karl Richard Lepsius vom Januar Naumburg , pp.
Beinlich, Horst Wiedergeburt aus dem Wasser. In: Antike Welt, 5 , pp. Beinlich, Horst Das Buch vom Fayum. In: Seipel, Wilfried Hrsg. November Regensburg ; Leoben ; Mannheim , pp. Wege zu Athanasius Kircher. Dettelbach , pp. Beinlich, Horst, Konkordanz der Tutanchamun-Kataloge. Beinlich, Horst, Verzeichnis der Zitate in H. Benaissa, A. Bennett, Z.
Bergman, D. Suggestions for adapting the Leipzig glossing rules. In: Lingua Aegyptia, 17 , pp. Bigelow, Robert C. Binder, M. Spencer and M. Birch, S. Samuel Birch. Birch, Samuel, "Researches relative to the connection of the deities represented upon the coins of egyptian nomes with the egyptian pantheon", The numismatic chronicle 2 : Bissing, Fr. Jahrgang , 9. Bissing, W. I: Le vocabulaire. ISBN Blackman, A. Blackman, Aylward M. Blanchette, Robert A. Bloxam, Elizabeth, "Who were the pharaohs' quarrymen? Boeser, P. September bis Dezember Bolshakov, Andrey O.
The false door of Jntj, MFA Bolshakov, Andrey, "Princess Hm. Spencer London: EES, , Bommas, Martin, Der Tempel des Chnum der Boraik, M. Wilkinson, WES 1 Arizona: , Preliminary Report," Karnak 13 : Boraik, Mansour, et al. Borchardt, L. I Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, Ein Kapitel zur Geschichte des Pflanzenornaments, Berlin, Burial customs in Roman Egypt. Colloquium London Bierbrier London, , Bothmer, Bernard V.
Bothmer Oxford: Oxford University Press, Bourgoin, J. Bradley, S. Brand, Peter J. Brania, A. Braun, E. Braverman, Irwin M. Redford, and Philip A. Mackowiak, "Akhenaten and the strange physiques of Egypt's 18th dynasty," Annals of Internal Medicine Jadwiga Lapinska Warsaw: , Wente, SAOC 58 , Brovarski, Edward, Giza Mastabas Vol. Giza Masatabs Vol. Brown, Farrah L. Leipzig, Brunner-Traut, E. Augustin, London, Budek, Jana, "Die Sonnenlaufszene.
Budge, E. Wallis , The Book of the Dead. Budge, Ernest A. Wallis, The book of the dead: the Papyrus Ani in the British Museum ; the Egyptian text with interlinear transliteration and translation, a running translation, introd. Facsimile : Facsimile of the papyrus of Ani London, , 2. Wallis, The Book of the Dead. Facsimile of the Papyrus of Ani in the British Museum, 2nd ed. In: Die Welt des Orients, 44 , pp. In: Kemet, 8 , Nr. Der 8. In: Kemet, 9 , Nr. Jahrtausend v. In: Kemet, 10 , Nr.
Budka, Julia Echnaton und Aton treu ergeben. In: Kemet, 11 , Nr. Budka, Julia Die Kultpyramide. In: Kemet, 12 , Nr. September , Wiesbaden Geburtstag von Helmut Satzinger. Krems , pp. In: Kemet, 13 , Nr. Nilkatarakt Sudan. Budka, Julia H. Teil 2: Begehung des Festlands. In: Der Antike Sudan, 15 , pp. September In: Kemet, 14 , Nr. Survey und Grabungen in Kirbekan. In: Der Antike Sudan, 16 , pp. Gdansk , pp.
Budka, Julia The Third Cataract. Its historical and political importance according to royal and private graffiti at Tombos. Vita, rigenerazione, incantesimo, medicamento. Budka, Julia Bevor das Wasser kommt. In: Kemet, 15 , Nr. Budka, Julia Das Asasif. In: Kemet, 15 , pp. In: Vaelske, Veit Hrsg. Befund, Kontext und Versuch einer Deutung. Wien , pp. Nilkataraktes im Februar In: Sokar, 12 , p. Leuven ; Paris ; Dudley, MA , pp. In: Der antike Sudan, 17 , pp.
In: Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, , pp. Budka, Julia Documentation and excavation of dome and crevice graves in Kirbekan. Berlin, August In: Kemet, 16 , Nr. Budka, Julia Wiedersehen mit Anch-Hor. In: Sokar, 9 , pp. Budka, Julia Ankh-Hor revisited: Study, documentation and publication of forgotten finds from the Asasif. Egypt ; perspectives of research, Pultusk 22 - 24 June Pultusk , pp.
Remarks on function and practical use based on extemal textual evidence. Budka, Julia The Ramesside temple in the Asasif: Observations on its construction and function, based on the results of the Austrian excavations. Structuring religion ; Leuven, September - 1. Session Papers. Warsaw , pp. Warschau , pp. Budka, Julia Pusch, Edgar B. Schaber - Marken - Scherben, Hildesheim Proceedings of an international conference, Prague, September 1 - 4, Prag , pp. Budka, Julia Varianz im Regelwerk. Neufunde der Kampagne In: Sokar, 11 , pp. Herausforderungen eines kulturwissenschaftlichen Paradigmenwechsels in den Altertumswissenschaften.
In: Isched. Journal des Aegypten Forum Berlin e. In: Sokar, 13 , pp. Neue Puzzlesteine als Ergebnisse der Feldkampagne In: Sokar, 14 , pp. Leuven ; Paris ; Walpole, Ma , pp. Budka, Julia Krokodil, Schlange und Kuhantilope. Budka, Julia Egyptian impact on pot-breaking ceremonies at Kurru? A re-examination. In: Anderson, Julie R.
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference for Nubian Studies. Leuven ; Paris ; Walpole, MA , pp. Budka, Julia Kushite pottery from the tomb of Karakhamun: Towards a reconstruction of the use of pottery in twenty-fifth dynasty temple tombs. Newcastle upon Tyne , pp. Budka, Julia Neues zur Tempelstadt der Dynastie auf Sai Island im Nordsudan. Ergebnisse der Feldkampagne In: Sokar, 15 , pp. In: Pischikova, Elena Hrsg. Cairo , pp. In: Egitto e vicino oriente, Nr. Budka, Julia Totenkult im Tempelgrab. Jahrtausends v. Studies Dedicated to Mohamed el-Bialy. Leiden - Boston , pp.
Leuven ; Paris ; Bristol, CT , pp. Budka, Julia Marks on Egyptian festival pottery. The use of pot marks in the context of Osirian rituals at Umm el-Qaab, Abydos. Budka, Julia Pot marks on New Kingdom amphorae from the oases. The case of Umm el-Qaab. Budka, Julia The Asasif revisited: new results from the Austrian concession. Acquisition, legitimization and renewal of power; 7. Budka, Julia Egyptian cooking pots from the pharaonic town of Sai island, Nubia. In: Pries, Andreas H. Akten des Internationalen Symposions in Heidelberg vom Budka, Julia The New Kingdom town on Sai Island - establishing the date of its foundation: potential and limits of ceramic studies.
In: Cahiers de recherches de l'Institut de Papyrologie et d'Egyptologie de Lille, 30 , pp. Budka, Julia Vessels of life: New evidence for creative aspects in material remains from domestic sites. Christiana Hrsgg. Proceedings of the international conference held at the University of Vienna, 14thth of May, Verfremdung, Realismus oder Propaganda? Bunbury, J. Graham, and K. Stuttgart , p. In: Redford, Donald B. Oxford , pp.
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April Vor- u. Posluschny, K. Lambers, and I. Herzog Bonn, , Bussmann, R. Butler, Beverley, "Alexandria revived: new realizations of an ancient city," Archaeology International 2 : Butzer, Karl W. Buzov, Emil, "Ptahhotep Maxim 32 P. Prisse 14, , 6 ," The Journal of Egyptological Studies 3 : L'Erma di Bretschneider, : Callender, Vivienne G. Calza, C. Campbell, G. Kammerzell ," Lingua Aegyptia 3 : Carter, Howard and Percy E. Castillos, J. Castle, Jonnaa C.
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A , volume , issue Clarysse, Willy and Remijsen, Sofie, "Incest or adoption? Clarysse, Willy, "Een zwarte Cleopatra? Clarysse, Willy, "The archive of Taembes, a female brewer in the Heracleopolite nome," Ancient Society 37 , Cohen, D. Kammerzell ," Lingua Aegyptia 2 : Cohen, Shaye J. Onomastique et histoire, vol. Collier, M. Cook, Charles E. Cook, R. Corcoran, Lorelei H. Correas-Amador, Maria, "An interactive tool for the recording, analysis and interpretation of ancient Egyptian domestic mudbrick architecture", JAEA 2, , pp.
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Daressy, G. Darnell, J. Darnell, John Coleman, Dash, G. Daszewski, Wiktor A. Daszkiewicz, M. Meyza, and G. Davey, Janet, Craig, Pamela J. Davies, Benedict G. Davies, Nina M. Private tombs at Thebes v. Based on preliminary work by the late T. Peet and illustrated with the help of H. Burton, Nina M. Davies, W. Emery and G. Davies, V. Davis, Theodore M. Davis, W. Dawson, Ashley N. De Meyer, Marleen, et. Aston, David, et.
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El Gemaiey, Gh. El Hadidi, N. El Sebaie, Sherine M. El-Sayed, Hegazy, Ph. Martinez, and Th. El-Sayed, Mona M. El-Sayyad E. IBAES 12 El-Toukhy, M. Elnaggar, A. Elnassari, A. Elsharnouby, R. Emberling, Geoff and Katharyn Hanson, Catastrophe! Emberling, Geoff, ed. Kitchen Rutherford Press Bolton, , Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, Vol. Eppenberger, Patrick E. Habicht, Francesco M. Erman, A. Jahrhundert v. Eyre, C.
Faheed, H. Farouk Mahmoud, May. Faulkner, Raymond O. Feraudi, Benedetto Geroglifici Egiziani. Sat sas en medu neter em kemt - Libro della scrittura del linguaggio sacro d'Egitto. Feucht, Erika Ein Motiv der Trauer. In: Hess, Albert G. Aalen , pp. Feucht, Erika Frau. In: Donadoni, Sergio Hrsg. New York ; Paris , pp. Feucht, Erika [Familie]. Stuttgart ; Weimar , pp. Feucht, Erika Birth. Feucht, Erika Childhood. Feucht, Erika Family. Lipinska Warschau, : Geburtstag, ed. Martin, J. Alltag und gesellschaftliches Leben. Photos von Werner Forman.
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Personenkonstituenten zur rituellen Wiedergeburt in einem Frauensarg des Mittleren Reiches. Orbis et Orientalis, , In: Bibliotheca Orientalis, 65 , pp. Cairo, Gharib, A. Giesecke, M. Giveon, Raphael Giveon, Raphael, Scarabs from recent Excavations in Israel. OBO Gnaedinger, John P. Godefroid, A. Goldwasser, O. Gompertz, M. Gozzoli, Roberto B. Gracia Zamacona, Carlos, "An egyptian funerary corpus: the coffin texts," Espacio, tiempo y forma, Historia antigua 2. Andreas Hartmann, and Gregor Weber Speyerc , Grajetzki, W. Graves-Brown, C. Larson, eds. Gregory, S. Hill, P. Jones, and A.
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Warburton, eds. Die Bedeutung von Heimatbesuchen in Kap Verde. MMA, There should be consequently an interaction between musical and linguistic education, and between listening and producing, especially in a classroom situation, where the teacher exagerates the prosody of the language to be acquired. The physical distance expressed in base pairs is specified on the left side of the bar, the reference ID of the Arabidopsis thaliana genes is specified on the right side of the beam. In: Donadoni, Sergio Hrsg.
Hunt, and David G. Hogarth, Fayum Towns and their Papyri London: Hunt, Edgar J. Goodspeed, The Tebtunis Papryi, Vol. Hunt, J. IV London: Griffith, Francis Llewelyn et al. Griffith, Francis Llewelyn, Eckley B. Coxe Junior Expedition to Nubia, Vol. I London: , Groll, S. Semiotics, "Pragmatics and Structuralism as a means to determine the degree of connectedness between utterances.
Ein 'working paper' zum gleichnamigen Vortrag", in: Hieratic Studies Online, vol. Gunes, M. Hoffner, and Theo P. Haase, Michael, "Brennpunkt Giza. Die Schachtsysteme der Cheops-Pyramide," Sokar 5 2. Halbjahr , Habicht M. Hafford, W. A tomb on the Giza Plataeu yields chewing-gum wrappers, Cairo tram tickets, a newspaper, and a 4,year-old burial," Archaeology May-June : Hageman, Rhonda K. Hall, H. Monastery of the Archangel, Naqada, Egypt January Preprints Volume I , Interpretation of a dyadic ceramic", pp.
Propylaeum-DOK, Harer, W. Benson, Jr. Haring, B. Harrell, James A. Harris, W. Hartwell, Suzette, Keeping up appearances: beauty, ageing and realism and its symbolism in art and literature in ancient Egypt Thesis, University of Manchester, Hassan, F. Barich, M. Mahmoud, and M. Hemdan, "Holocene playa deposits of Farafra Oasis, Egypt, and their palaeoclimatic and geoarchaeological significance," Geoarchaeology Hassan, Fekri A. Essays in Honor of David B. O'Connor, Volume I, Hassan, Selim, "Selim Hassan.
The Great Sphinx and its Secrets. Hauser, E. Hawass, Zahi A. Studies dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman , Intentionality involves knowledge of information systems - as supplied by the functional approach to language in the form of FSP. Contextuality is very much dependent on knowledge of sociolinguistics and pragmatics while intertextuality has to do with the experience of previous texts literary and non-literary.
Coherence can be regarded as the covering term for all these aspects while a certain amount of psycho-linguistics is also needed in order to understand the communicative value of a text. The premiss of this paper is that as all those types of knowledge are involved in the understanding and production of a text, it can be argued that text linguistics can claim to be an umbrella-term for studying linguistics as such. It also means that an interdisciplinary approach to the study of language and linguistics will probably be more justified than the study of isolated disciplines.
Text linguistics certainly does not claim to solve all the problems regarding the study of language, but it does claim that it can help considerably to solve many problems that have to do with the way language is used to communicate. It therefore seems to be a very relevant component of linguistics, and not just merely another way of studying linguistics. Eine der problematischsten Formen des Wissenserwerbs war und ist immer noch der Fremdsprachenerwerb. Deshalb werde ich den Schwerpunkt meines Beitrags auf den Fremdsprachenerwerb fokussieren und versuchen, die beiden folgenden Fragen in ihren wichtigsten Aspekten und anhand von Beispielen zu beantworten: Wie sind diese noch nicht jedem bekannten Prinzipien des Konstruktivismus zu verstehen und wie sind sie konkret in der Fremdsprachendidaktik umzusetzen?
First, most of these advertisements are not just focus on one or two slogans, as compared to earlier advertisements, but on much longer texts, and this is also widely employed in many other advertisements in recent years. Secondly, these advertisements adopt the linguistic devices of metaphors, puns, irony, poetic effects etc. It is these particular figures of speech and styles that make the advertisements attractive and something literary, and thus arouse audience's attention. Thirdly, these advertisements are ideologically significant The bookstore is no more to sell their books only, nor the department store just to persuade people to buy clothes in vogue.
Rather, by reflecting modern lifestyles and current social concerns therein, they evoke popular frames such as intellectuals, elitism, communication, humanity, political issues, feminine awakening and corporation images, adding socio-cultural properties to the commodities being advertised, and leading the customers to recognize the prominent values. In doing a functional and critical linguistic study of advertising discourse, this paper will not merely make us understand more about the relationship between language and social values and cultural elements, but it will also bring some new insights into various media discourse types influenced remarkably by contemporary socio-cultural interaction and other dominant forces and, effecting social structures and contributing to the achievement of social continuity and change.
Applied Linguistics Knowledge of grammar is essential for giving messages in a foreign language, but eventually learners are measured by the actual words and phrases they use. To produce meaningful and accurate language they need guidance on the ways words are arranged to express a particular meaning in a particular environment. New types of reference materials have appeared which undertake to describe the detailed patterns of usage. There remains, however, a huge gap between the generalities of grammar and the individuality of expression on which these books, understandably, concentrate. The missing link can be produced by grammar of word-classes, i.
The format suggested by the authors allows us to divide the broad classes in classical grammars, such as "link verbs", "mass nouns" or "qualitative adjectives" into sub-classes, then sub-sub-classes and so down to the usage-end. The starting point and the central core of the process must be the Verb as the most syntax-sensitive type of word, the one that governs the syntactical pattern of a sentence. From here it moves to the position-depended word-types, first those which stand closest to the Verb then those which are "the farthest" from it in the pattern. These are the categories pertaining to different aspects of Grammar, Meaning, Collocation and Idiom, Variety and Purpose, i.
This paper proposes that the distinction between the two in Japanese is not structural but depends solely on the contexts in which relative clauses are used. Thus, example 2 below is ungrammatical: We must solicit opinions from every Junior-high school student in Japan who studies English. However, knowing that all Junior-high school students in Japan study English, the corresponding Japanese sentence below can only be interpreted as an appositive clause, or the equivalent of 2.
As the corresponding translations indicate, despite that the two sentences are structurally identical, 4 is interpreted as restrictive but 5 as appositive. As a conclusion, this paper will argue that the differences between restrictive and appositive relative clauses in English and Japanese are due to their differences in word order and concepts of definiteness. Winkeladvokat - slow.
All these authors have tried to establish what determines whether a given verb phrase is interpreted as moving the narrative forward figure or as moving it sideways background. They all reach a similar conclusion: accomplishments and achievements i. According to him, narratives are divided into discourse segments, and the boundaries between these segments are signalled by different types of discontinuities, among which we can find temporal discontinuities including flashbacks.
Within each segment, the temporal relations between the narrated events are determined by the aspectual oppositions mentioned above. In this paper I intend to carry out a thorough and detailed study of a short story written in English along these lines. First of all, I will divide the narrative into its discourse segments, using the clues provided by Nakhimovsky, paying special attention to discontinuities in time scale.
And second, I will establish the temporal relationships between events within discourse segments, and then determine whether it is indeed the aspectual class that determines them, or whether there are other factors. Applied Linguistics Starting from reflections upon the current attractiveness of the concept of Language Awareness, the paper presents a critical discussion of the vagueness of the concet itself and its potential benefit for L2 learners. The papers asks how far common gound can be established between a general educational goal of Language Awareness, and the specific issue of the role of explicit awareness of grammatical structure in TEFL.
While explicit awareness of grammatical structures was central to language learning in grammar-translation methodology, the so-called communicatve approach implied a need to become aware of aspects of language in contextual use, though it was not always clear which contextual facts one needed to be aware of. The paper dicusses some aspects of language use and usage and the implications of increased language awareness for language teachers and learners.
Puns being a discourse phenomenon, they are liable to an analysis in Gricean terms. Puns, however, are also langue -related phenomena, in the sense that there are metalinguistic mechanisms underlying them: it is practically impossible to devise or make sense of a pun without performing - consciously or not - an operation on the language system, such as recognising or simply remembering a homonymic or homophonic, or paronomastic, etc.
I wish to show that when implicata are established as a result of identifying a pun, one of them must be partially self-referential. Let us take an example: 1 Once Nora had set the ball rolling, other couples took the floor. That is what the author is playing on. Because she is not what she seems! In a case like this, a satisfactory Gricean account of the pun can only be given if one accepts that one of the implicata involves metalinguistic connotation.
Psycholinguistics The paper reports further analyses of the study aimed at interpretation of linguistic meanings by multilingual University students on the basis of neurological data dealing with hemisphere semantic systems access. Here, the concern is to examine each hemisphere contribution to the process of comprehension of polysemantic words both by bilinguals and trilinguals within sentence contexts.
Specifically the analyses seek to determine what kind of linguistic information and on what level could influence word-recognition in a sentence by multilingual subjects. Key issues in the design of the hemispheric system of exercises right- left-brain which is based on principles of cooperative learning and utilizes suppresion and self-controlled mechanisms will be raised and commented on in greater details. Following C. CHIARELLO'S point of view, we also hypothesized that both message-level and word-level processes necessarily involve controlled semantic processing which is the responsibility of the left and right hemi- sphere under bilingualism and trilingualism.
In this respect, of utmost importance is the level of processing depth and the structure of suppre- ssion mechanisms rejecting secondary word meanings at various levels of language comprehension. Our comparative analysis suggests that semantic selection is inseparably connected with the left hemisphere dominance both in bilinguals and trilinguals.
In other words, the activation of primary and secondary meanings of a word takes place in the left brain. Thus, the interpretation of contextual information by the right hemisphere is carried out between individual words in a sentence, namely using relations or secondary meanings of a word. Hence, the unique role of the right hemisphere in word-recognition secondary meanings will be discussed and statistical data presented. Applied Linguistics Each language has its own specific prosody, which is the first thing perceived when one hears a foreign language.
Studies of infant speech perception show that music and prosody of language are similary processed by contours. In the emerging language, the child sets rythm and intonation up. First, he perceives and produces musical elements of his maternal language which act as prototypes. When hearing a foreign language, he should behave in the same way: he should also perceive and produce musical elements. Therefore, an ear trained by musical education should be more efficient in perceiving and producing melody and rythm of a foreign language. There should be consequently an interaction between musical and linguistic education, and between listening and producing, especially in a classroom situation, where the teacher exagerates the prosody of the language to be acquired.
Thus, as soon as possible, babies are faced with two languages differing drastically in their prosody. The study deals with two ages groups: in the younger children, the influence of English on the prosodic structures of the maternal language will be examined, in the older children, both the influence of L1 on L2 and reciprocaly the influence of L2 on L1 will be measures. We also compare the foreign language performance in children with and without musical training, and finaly, the study tries to estimate the benefits of an early learning on a more general level.
Following his working principle ibid. When we use the term modal expressions we are aware that modality is a very complex linguistic category that can be expressed in quite different ways. As the semantic characteristics of modal verbs have been extensively studied their use can relatively easily be related to their ideological dimension. In our investigations we furthermore included main verbs, adjectives, adverbs, lexical affixes and certain sentence types, i. The text corpus was taken from the Guardian Weekly and covers home news and international news. It consists of 30 news reports and 30 editorials commenting the respective news.
The decision for the text base was influenced by our desire to demonstrate that ideological subjectivity of the newspaper is not only behind editorials, but behind news reports as well. Informanten realisierten Bedeutungen zu ermitteln, und welchen Beitrag kann die Linguistik zur Theoriebildung und Kommunikation in der Psychologie leisten? Wenn sie z. Pragmatics An idiom is an expression whose overall figurative meaning cannot be derived from the meaning of its individual parts.
This remark suggests that idioms cannot be processed in the same way as expressions with literal meanings. One possible explanation for this phenomenon may be that an idiom is stored in the mental lexicon as a single lexical entry. Hence, retrieving the figurative meaning of the whole phrase is much faster than accessing the literal meaning of each individual word and then computing a literal meaning of that phrase.
However, the activation of the figurative meaning of an idiomatic expression depends greatly on a very important factor, which has not been taken into account until recently: the context in which this expression is represented and processed, particularly when both literal and figurative interpretations are equally frequent. Therefore, this paper studies idioms from the point of view of language processing and focuses on the on-line interpretation of these phrases, especially addressing the issue of when and how the meaning of the idiomatic expressions becomes available to the hearer during discourse comprehension.
Applied Linguistics During the past decade, advances in the theory of U niversal G rammar have provided momentum for developing a theory of language acquisition accounting for the traditional problems in the field. These advances also raised the possibility of a theory of UG as an alternative theory of S econd L anguage A cquisition. However, within this approach to SLA, there still remain a number of problematic issues. This research study aims to seek answers to some of the major questions which directly concerns the type of access to UG principles and parameters by investigating the acquisition of the head-direction parameter value for L2 by Turkish adult learners of English as a second language L2.
If they are available, are they available in their entirety from the start, or do they unfold in a developmental sequence? The study is conducted on 45 subjects, who were classified into three different levels of English language proficiency beginner, intermediate, advanced on the results of the Michigan Placement Test. The data are based on the performance of the subjects on three different tasks aimed to elicit the subjects' competence on L2.
Psycholinguistics In this paper I will present examples of several forms of language change, especially acquisition data. Significantly, these forms of language change exhibit parallels in their development, e. The acquisition data show that children begin the production of complex sentences with short, asyndetic, paratactic utterances. Then they form dependent sentences without conjunctions. In short utterances, conjunctions and demonstrative pronouns are produced, even though they are still missing in longer sentences. Sometimes there are only sentence fragments. Correct morphology is used both in short utterances and in fragments.
Over a period of several months an oscillation can be observed between correct markings, the correct number of items subject, verbs and the correct order of elements in complex sentences. Schemata are often a first step on the way to complex regularity.
The interaction of various linguistic levels, diachronic change resulting from synchronic variation, the influence of speakers and hearers as well as the situation and the conflicts that arise - all these aspects play a major role in the various approaches concerned with language change, e. I will offer a psychologically plausible explanation of these phenomena by way of a functionalist-cognitive approach: Information is understood to be processed in a network-like system which is influenced by functional factors and which results automatically in interaction of linguistic levels, transitions and the prototypical structure of concepts.
Structure arises and changes gradually. Old and new forms co-exist. Non-linguistic influences are always possible. Phonetics The purpose of this paper is to propose the underlying stress contours of English phrasal verbs. The target phrases are such two-word verbs as "call on" and "call up" with or without NP Obj. In actual speech, however, the underlying stress contours of English phrasal verbs could sustain modification due to the contexts in which the phrases are used.
Apparent exceptions are produced by semantic or phonological interaction. Psycholinguistics This paper is a summary of analyses carried out to identify linguistically relevant aspects of written output obtained from patients with various types of mental disorders. The paper discusses two lines of experiments. First, the results of a two-year study on the linguistic manifestation of presuicidal syndrome PSS are summarized. This section starts from the classical definition of presuicidal syndrome and explores the linguistic entities associated with the disorder in order to specify the characteristic features of PSS.
The texts for analysis were obtained from subjects who were asked to summarize the content of their hypnotic dream shortly thereafter. The texts were then analyzed from the point of view of form and content, and subsequently the results were used to formulate a hypothesis concerning the linguistic typology of patients with PSS. The validity of the hypothesis was tested one year later in a different setting where patients were asked to devise a possible ending for a situation described on paper.
Second, research into the linguistic phenomena involved in classifying various types of dementia are described.
This account of an on-going project is dedicated to outlining the set of linguistic phenomena that appear to be relevant for setting aside one type of mental disorder from the other. Diese wird in manchen Arbeiten als "Wackernagel-Position" bezeichnet. Diese Elemente als Klitika zu definieren, scheint ebenfalls nicht korrekt zu sein, da sie genau genommen als zweites Element im Satz - d.
Auch wenn im Spanischen keine Wortklasse zu finden ist, die die formalen und funktionalen Merkmale der dt. In diesem Vortrag werden die in den bisher aufgestellten kontrastiven Studien Dt. Daher ist auch die Einbeziehung von Kommunikations- und Interaktionsforschung bzw. Morphology Personal pronouns have always been considered to be one of the most problematic word classes. In this paper the number inflection of personal pronouns will be at issue. Suppletion appears to be widely distributed, however, other means of expressing pronominal plual inflection can be found. Morphological plural formation is the central point of the argument.
The provided analysis will show if there are any interdependencies in the language structure that determine the character of number inflection. The earlier typological generalizations of B. These universals state correlations between morphological plural markers used by pronouns and nouns. Indeed, pronouns do follow the model of nouns in forming their plural form i. Tamil Dravidian or Sierra Popoluca Penutian , but this is not always the case. There are languages, such as Ainu isolated , Chukchi-Kamchatkan languages, Japanese Altaic , Hixkaryana Ge-Pano-Carib , Kilivila Austronesian , Tungus and Samoyed languages, where pronouns develop their own morphological means for building the plural form.
The improved version of the aforementioned universals is provided in the final part of this paper. Sociolinguistics Our analysis of the English element in European languages has shown that the adaptation of anglicisms on four levels does not end with the integration of English source words into the receiving languages. Analysing integrated anglicisms in six European languages two Slavonic: Croatian and Russian, two Germanic: German and Swedish, and two Romance: French and Italian , we have noticed that some anglicisms in the receiving languages behave as any other native word of the receiving language.
This means that anglicisms can go on adapting for a second time. The results of the second process can be analysed again on the levels on which the adaptation was carried out in the first stage. This proves that the process of adaptation has two phases. Both phases will be illustrated by the transfer of meaning. The results of the analysis prove that the application of primary and secondary adaptation represents a new contribution to the theory of contact linguistics. Phonetics There is a considerable amount of literature on downtrends but almost none on uptrends.
The paper documents the phonetic and the phonology of uptrends hence upsweep in Baule, its formal phonetic and phonological representation. This paper purports to show that a rise in F0 over sequences of H tones functions to distinguish between the prosodic word and the morphological word in Baule.
Phonological processes are presented whose domain appear to be the prosodic word, lending credence to the claim that prosodic structure is a separate level within the grammar. The basic fact that needs to be captured is that a High tone at the end of a domain is higher than any preceding ones. In a High tone sequence, the first is the lowest and intermediate Highs are either equal in height to the first one or gradually rising to the peak at the end.
The concern of the paper is to provide a strong foundation for the theoretical discussion through the use of the phonetic data with greater emphasis on laboratory technique along the lines of CONNELL and LADD , in which the use of average values across multiple productions of the same or prosodically comparable sentences rather than measurements of single utterances has proved to be valuable.
Such an output can be further smoothed by subsequent rules to produce the gradual rise. One would also require a way to lower the other non-final tones to produce some variants of the gradual. However, a lowered High tone cannot to our knowledge be related to any other phenomenon in Baule, and this leaves us unable to argue for its status on independent grounds. The raised High or Super High tone, on the other hand, can be identified with the raised High that is used for focused and negative constituents The formal representation of the raised High in Baule is suggested by the fact that a High in Baule is not subject to downdrift, and this makes us suspect that such a tone will require a separate autosegmental tier for register tones, apart from the tier on which lexical High vs.
Low tonal contrasts are represented. One may not ignore the Obligatory Contour Principle, and represent a sequence of high-toned syllables as a series of high tones rather than a single high tone spread over several syllables if evidence is brought that after a raising the subsequent tones are also raised. Umgangssprache, Rednersprache, Dichtung, ferner Fach- und Sondersprachen differenziert er das Lateinische in diachronischer, diatopischer und diastratischer Hinsicht. Jahrhunderts v. Phonetics 0. Whereas in Spanish, the head of the predicate can appear next to the verb, this is not the case in small clause constructions in the other languages: 1 a.
Vi borrachos a los marineros. Spanish b. English c. French d. The incorporation analysis is jeopardized by the fact that the incorporated head can be heavily modified or even coordinated. Alternatively, in the spirit of KAYNE , , I propose an account of the word order in 1a based on leftward movement of the operation predicate raising as an instance of remnant movement. Relevantly, I claim that in all these cases, there is a similar derivation that makes use of internal topic positions, which contrast with the outer topic positions in Rizzi's fine structure of the left periphery of the sentence.
Thus, the parametrization within Romance would be that Spanish syntax, unlike that of the other Romance languages, is strongly driven by Topic movement, motivated in turn by the Topic Criterion which can be satisfied either by head movement or XP movement to the relevant Top projection. Die untersuchte Sprache ist das Italienische. Semantische Tests Bestimmte Adverbien zeigen verschiedene semantische Werte je nachdem, ob sie ein pp oder ein A modifizieren. Semiotics The aim of this paper is an attempt to present an analysis concerning the categorization of reality i the range field of time.
It's also an attempt to establish the temporal status of chosen pictograms sequences fo signs in their metaphorical usage in the Naxi pictography. Metaphor as an element of a structure of a pictogram and a kind of cognitive attitude plays a major role in the semiotic investigation describing the way of expressing a categorial meaning of time in the pictographic writing system of the naxi. It is also worth to present the typology of the metaphorical temporal meaning - as a form of perceiving similarities both on the meaning of sign and objects described by pictograms.
The analyzed signs belong to the group of mimetic pictograms, which in dictionaries LI , ROCK , HE and FANG in their defined and codified form, have a double actualization in Naxi pictographic scripts: in a literal meaning and in a metaphorical meaning. The semiotic investigation presented in this paper aims at interpretation of the metaphorical usage of the mimetic signs, and it includes: 1 process of transferring the literal meaning into the metaphorical meaning of time and 2 similarity of two concepts meanings which serves as a basis of creating temporal status of a given pictogram tertium comparationis.
To emphasize the specific character of the Naxi pictography and so-called "picture of time" in it, it should be added that it is both the means of transmission and the transmission itself. The way in which a metaphor of a Naxi pictogram functions composes a separate character, a different way of discribing reality. It means difference in transmission, i. The starting point of the analysis is an assumption that the Naxi pictography is a particular visual message, where both simple naturalistically stylized signs and combinations of signs implicate the language of transmission to be not a "verbal" but "mental" one.
Research on the metaphorical expressions of time i the pictography shows basic temporal features, i. Moreover, preliminary observations and research seem to entitle us to state the existence of particular notions ontological categories in Naxi pictographic scripts, as for examp[le notion of space, motion, quantity, quality, measure. In the present paper this author would like also to answer the questions whether the temporal metaphor in the Naxi pictography determine a change of a meaning or a change of a category?
Diachronic Linguistics Als theoretischer Plan semantischer Rekonstruktion in Hinsicht auf das Wort einer altgermanischen Sprache tritt die Forschung der Besonderheiten der archaischen Semantik hervor. In Bezug auf das sprachliche Denken wurde diese Idee schon von A. Solche Forscher wie M. Alle anderen Bestandteile des semantischen Komplexes verloren ihre Wichtigkeit im Kontext der gotischen Bibel.
Einen wichtigen Hinweis bekommt man, wenn ein gotisches Lexem zwei oder mehr griechische Lexeme widergeben kann z. Computational Linguistics Several formalisms have been proposed to describe and represent linguistic knowledge i. The diversity of formalisms arises a crucial problem of evaluating and choosing the appropriates formalisms needed to develop an application.
In this paper, we present a platform that helps to solve these problems. This platform is based on formal methods. Starting from a unified or pivot representation of the main linguistic formalisms, we develop an integration process of a varied knowledge described initially by different formalisms. This process is very useful to the development of lingware that deal with different aspects of language i. Moreover, it guides the choosing process of the appropriate formalism, from the candidates ones, to develop a lingware, using a formal evaluation.
We begin by reminding the interests of using formal methods in lingware engineering. After that, we discuss the unified or pivot representation of linguistic formalisms. Thereafter, we present some formal criteria to the choice of the appropriate s formalism s to use in a lingware and we give some details of their use. Then, we present our approach to integrate a variety of linguistic knowledge, described initially by different formalisms. Finally, we detail the basis components of the platform that we propose.
Applied Linguistics The specifics of the work stem from the specific audience that is addressed in the intensive German and English language courses in the Naval Academy. These are adults, well educated, with broad general knowledge and extensive life experience, demanding to themselves and their instructors. Most of them need translation and interpretation in their professional duties, which creates an additional motivation. The requirements of STANAG for the development of the four basic language skills: reading, listening, writing and speaking in the intensive courses for officers do not presuppose exercises connected with translation.
However, our teaching experience so far shows that this can only lead to limitation of vocabulary, learning of expressions and grammatical constructions by heart and mechanical solving of multiple choice tests on the basis of elimination. All of the above tends to create a psychological barrier in the students, a feeling of uncertainty and insecurity whenever they have to apply their language skills spontaneously and creatively.
This paper explores some of the exercises connected with translation and interpretation, their contribution to the conscious and unimpeded usage of various grammatical and lexical forms and their positive influence on the creative language acquisition. The authors lay no claim to encompassing all types of exercises, but rather concentrate on those that have proved to be successful in their practice.
La grammaire universelle de R. Computational Linguistics We present a model which deals with categorization of situations and actions and generation of corresponding natural language utterances. An acting, situated robotic agent describes manipulations of its environment from its own perspective. We follow a two-step approach cf. Thus, a coupling of non-linguistic sensor data and pre-linguistic concepeptual structure is achieved. In the second step, the activated concepts are fed into a parallel, incremental surface generator.
The resulting utterances are termed situation and action descriptions SADs , cf. They are based solely on sensor input; no deliberate or discourse information like plans, discourse model or complex memory contents is integrated. The scientific contribution of our work thus lies in 1 the presentation of an ontology in which the connection of conceptual and nonlinguistic information can be described and 2 the observation that a certain type of utterances, namely SADs, can be identified which is solely based on data extracted from the actual physical environment of a cognitive system.
The model has been implemented. It currently serves as a categorization and natural language generation component of a simulated assembly robot controlled by a behavior based architecture see MILDE et. Experiments show that every action of the robot is classified in a satisfying degree of granularity without regard to any plan the robot internally might follow.
Semantics It is well-known that the English self-pronoun myself , themselves , etc. Most commonly a locally bound reflexive e. Mary likes herself , it can also, for example, be "logophoric" e. Mary knows that John as well as herself may be indicted. Furthermore, these latter non-reflexive functions are in most dialects restricted to syntactic environments in which the predicate selecting the self-pronoun lacks a higher argument.
This insight is captured in Pollard and Sag's Principle A, which essentially states that if a self-pronoun has a less oblique coargument, i. In this paper, we pick up where Pollard and Sag leave off. We propose a novel formulation of Principle A which determines the precise constraints on virtually all of the functions of self-pronouns in English. The architecture of this principle is such that the self-pronoun continues to be subject to a series of constraints whose applicability, like Pollard and Sag's Principle A, is dependent on the environment in which the self-pronoun is found.
Namely, if a self-pronoun is locally o-free, then the next concern is whether there is a higher thematic rather than syntactic argument available. If so, then the self-pronoun must be bound thematically; if not, then the next in a series of if-then statements is checked. We will show that these statements are crucially ordered with respect to one another, and suggest that this correlates with the frequency of each related function. This extended Principle A is able to account for a wide spectrum of data, both attested and gathered with original experiments.
Psycholinguistics The question of how people interpret spatial relations between objects involves the conception of spatial dimensions and their poles in a given situation. I will introduce a descriptive model of the cognitive conception of spatial relations between objects that is consistently based on an anthropomorphological classification.
The model starts at the assumption according to which people attribute proper places as well as regions to objects. The criteria according to which the cognitive attribution of proper places and regions is made relate to functional aspects of human action and knowledge. From the overlapping relations between proper places and regions, we may predict which objects will be conceived of as spatially related at all, and can derive the distinction of topological relations between objects, i. A more specific characterization of the relative location of objects is accomplished by the human conception of spatial dimensions and their poles.
Here, the dimensional interpretation of a situation is derived from the asymmetries of the human body. The individual that interprets his or her spatial environment occupies the spacedimensoning Origo, which is the basic precondition for cognition of dimensional relations. Subsequently, instances other than the space-cognizing individual him- or herself can become the Origo through mental translation and rotation processes; these processes generally involve the patterns of anthropomorphous projection.
What has been described in previous theoretical approaches by means of classification of seperate systems of spatial reference, can now be derived in a unified way from cognitive-psychological factors; i. I will report on empirical results that account for the suitability of this descriptive model as an explanative model of the actual use of dimensional prepositions in different situations.
Morphology Comparability of adjectives answers to a kind of adjective meaning - scalability, defined as a range, versus a point on a scale. In English, the morphological question of whether comparison in relation to a higher degree is expressed by the inflected forms in - er and - est or their periphrastic equivalents, more and most, depends on numerous variables: length of word, position of stress, form of suffix, if any, etymology, frequency, as well as presumed free variation. The availability of two ways of expressing higher degree in the quality of an adjective raises the usage question of which form should be used with any particular adjective?
BOLINGER claims that the semantic issue of degrees affects the morphological realization of adjective comparison, inhibiting the synthetic - er morpheme even under conditions that would otherwise permit it. While semantic classification of adjectives does reveal some tendencies in the morphological manifestation of adjective gradation, grammarians contend that the choice between inflectional and periphrastic comparison is largely determined by the length of the adjective QUIRK et al. Although adjective length is cited as the main determinant of morphological variation, a major problem arises with 2-syllable adjectives, many of which permit both forms of comparison.
Thus it readily becomes clear that sheer prosody and phonological structure of an adjective are not sufficient criteria to determine which form should be used with any particular adjective; the syntactic role an adjective plays also warrants consideration. While most adjectives that are inflected for comparison can also take the periphrastic forms with more and most , they assume the periphrastic form more often when they are predicative and are followed by a correlative than -clause.
Additionally, there seem to be fewer restrictions on using the periphrastic forms with adjectives in correlative clauses of proportion. This paper will examine adjective gradation and illustrate how the periphrastic form of comparison is gaining ground in current American English usage, confirming the diachronic tendency for periphrastic forms to replace morphological ones over time, supported by theories of morphological language typology and grammaticalization. Having spent the last year gathering data and documenting actual usage of comparability in adjectives, it will be shown that the tendency to employ the periphrastic form in adjective gradability is particularly widespread with mono-syllabic adjectives, indicating a 21 st century irreverence for established prescriptive grammar.
Zu diesem Zweck wurden ca. Das Computerprogramm "Sprechkarte" erlaubt es, die Antworten 1 , 2 , 3 oder 4 der Sprecher geographisch sichtbar zu machen. Theory of Linguistics Although coordinate constructions are very common in natural languages, they are among the most difficult phenomena to describe in any linguistic theory. In this paper, I shall try to develop a way of speaking about coordination as a kind of linguistic speed-up device. Since any coordinated structure is intrinsically more complex than its conjoined parts, the formation rules for coordination must have evolved later than the formation rules for non-coordinated structures.
Languages solve the technical problem of coordination by simply repeating formation rules. Thus, coordination as such is the recursive technique of applying sentence formation rules more than once. Conjunctors mark the beginning of a secondary procedure for sentence formation. However, obeying some constraints, a secondary procedure does not have to activate all formation rules actived in a previous procedure. This allows for treating gapping and left-deletion together with other structurally less demanding forms of coordination.
The difference between easy and difficult forms of coordination is mainly how general the repeated formation rules are. The procedural approach also claims that representation of coordination procedures are impossible to achieve if no further allowances for certain types of groupings are made. I shall try to show that even complicated coordinated structures can be readily represented if the usual two-dimensional plane for stemmata or dependency trees is expanded into a third dimension.
Wir unterscheiden daher drei Bereiche im Lexikon im Unterschied zu, z.
Funktion , die Restriktionen auf das lexikalische und syntaktische Umfeld des Diskursmarkers, und die stilistischen Eigenarten. ROTH Dabei erhebt sich die Frage nach jenen Veranlagungen und anerzogenen resp. Psycholinguistics Since experimentally induced speech errors are often triggered by certain carefully selected tongue twisters, we may rather easily predict what kind of segmental errors subjects will produce in laboratory settings.
Nevertheless, there is a handful of factors that have been found to constrain phonological slips of the tongue in naturalistic speech as well. The following constraints have been proposed so far:. The present paper discusses the effect of the constraints above in naturalistic phonological errors in the Finnish language.
It is found that the constraints form a hierarchy in which phonotactics and structural properties play the most important role. The calculations indicate that the power of initialness effect is less than chance and overruled by another structural constraint, namely position similarity. On the basis of the present data, it is also evident that adjacency constrains phonological errors more strictly than either word class or phrase-internalness and that lexical constraint can be seen in only one fourth of the errors. The results can be interpreted to shed light on both the word-internal cohesion and architecture of the speech production system.
Although we cannot predict when an error will occur, we may expect it to be of certain type. Sociolinguistics This paper will discuss the prospect of using personal letters for the study of linguistic change and variation. This is not a new idea: a number of linguists interested in the history of the English language have been doing just that for a number of years already the Corpus of Early English Correspondence is perhaps the foremost example.
The author's interest here, however, is to point out the possibility of compiling a corpus of correspondence that is not language based, but language-community based. Choosing eighteenth-century Croatia as an exemplary time and place, the author will describe a language situation that was considerably different from that of England at the same time and even for several centuries before: non-native languages e. A corpus of multilingual correspondence would be advantageous for the historical study of language use in Croatia. First of all, it would allow the linguist to see how one language community used different varieties including different languages to communicate among themselves - and how these patterns of language use changed with time.
Secondly, it could shed light on the mechanisms of linguistic change caused by language contact. Finally, due to its content, such a corpus would be of interest to linguists and non-linguists alike e. Phonology Syllable contraction in Taiwanese Southern Min has long attracted the attention of many Chinese linguists. In the descriptive model syllable contraction results from deletion, and how it occurs remains almost unexplained. First, the association of segments and the skeleton tier begins with both edges, affecting onset and consonantal coda alone. In addition, V-neutralization applies even when the mid vowel constitutes rime with the preceding vowel.
Consider 5. Each of these particles has different discoursal meanings and functions.
The privious studies have shown that modal particles are usually unaccented. Thus, accentuation is said to be very important for the functions of particles when they are spoken. On the other hand, prosody such as intonation and accent, itself plays an important role in human speech communication.
The speaker can express subtle meanings, intentions, and emotions by means of prosody, while her interlocuter can understand them almost exactly by hearing it. The problem arises when prosody is used in sentences with modal particles, as is always the case in spoken German. It is suggested the focusing strategy of speakers using modal particles is influenced by the complexity of mutual belief.
Finally, these prosodic characteristics of German modal particles concluded by the analysis are compared with those of Japanese modal particles. Psycholinguistics The on-line processing demands of morphological parsers whether human or silicon of morphology include, but are not exhausted by two requirements: morphology has to uncover the lexical identity of the stem for eventual lexical lookup.
Moreover it must reveal the morphosyntactic categories for interface with syntax. Verbs are more problematic still, as a nondefective verb has to forms per lexical entry. Note also that inflectional morphs occur frequently in texts as the ratio of running non-zero inflectional morphs to running words in Finnish is 0. The present series of simple lexical decision and lexical decision with priming will further elaborate on the stem allomorph model of Finnish NIEMI et al.
Sociolinguistics At the time of Independence in , Senegal along with most other former French colonies in Africa declared French the sole official language. Almost fourty years later, French is still the language of administration and government, the exclusive medium of public education, and the language of the urban elite. French is spoken as a first language by less than a quarter of one per cent of school-age children.
This paper will attempt to describe the well-defined contexts in which French is used in Senegalese society, the contrasting socioeconomic statuses of those who claim to use French and those who do not, and the images of the French language carried in each group. The paper will demonstrate the correlation in Senegal between socioeconomic status and knowledge of French; the correlation between the perceptions of French and its official status as the de facto only means of economic advancement; the contradiction between the official language policy and the social reality of the country; and the impact of such a policy on development goals.
Phonetics Many studies have indicated that speech slows down immediately before a pause, but very little is known about the influence of a pause on the temporal organization of the utterance as a whole. The present study, using Japanese speech material, examines if the effect of an intra-sentence pause is localized to the segments immediately preceding the pause, or if it affects other parts of the utterance as well.
A Japanese test sentence, with a possible pause location at a major syntactic boundary roughly in the middle of the sentence, was produced by a number of native speakers under two contrasting conditions, i. Based on acoustic measurements, the effects of intra-sentence pause insertion was examined by analyzing the articulation rate obtained for each of the eight demi-phrases that constituted the test sentence.
The results showed that the most conspicuous change in the articulation rate due to pause insertion occurred in the demi-phrase immediately preceding the intra-sentence pause. The results also showed that the insertion of an intra-sentence pause had an additional effect of shifting the overall articulation rate of the rest of the utterance. The shift was found to be realized either as increase or decrease depending on the speaker. Thus, the effect of an intra-sentence pause was found to manifest itself not only as the decrease in the articulation rate of the segment immediately preceding the pause but also as the shift in the overall articulation rate of the rest of the utterance.
Semantics The paper deals with two main issues, namely it considers the status of blends vs. As far as the first problem is concerned blends are viewed against the concepts of cognitrive metaphor, metonymy and personification. The basic question is whether with the advent of blends there is still place for the other three above concepts in cognitive semantic theory.
The result of the inquiry shows that personification can be exhaustively accounted for by blends theory, whereas metonymy cannot be analysed adequately in terms of blends. Some metaphors can be viewed as blends but some should retain their present status. When cognitive metaphors are viewed not only as nominal, gerundial and prepositional correspondences but also as correspondences of verbs or other predicates with their arguments there seem to be at least two consequences of this stance.
Firstly, predicate argument structures can be compared in the source and target domains with respect to invariance hypothesis which deals with preservation of topological structures from source to target domains. Secondly, it brings the theory of cognitive metaphor closer to other linguistic theories such as classical semantics and even generative grammar. Sociolinguistics In recent years much progress has been made concerning certain aspects e. From a syntactic point of view, these and several other studies have shown that languages or grammars in contact interact at all levels of linguistic structures e.
This interaction is not random, but it is rule-governed. For instance, is codeswitching structure determined by the grammar of one of the participating languages in a given speech situation; or is it the case that it is determined evenly by all the participating languages? This paper examines these issues in the light of CS data involving English with selected African languages and against the backdrop of the diglossic relationship that exists between English and these languages.
In this relationship English is the High language and African languages are the Low languages. Accordingly, in their linguistic behavior African bilingual speakers tend to draw linguistic items from English when speaking an African language. It is argued that structurally the resulting codeswitching speech is almost exclusively governed by the syntactic rules of the matrix language, in this case the participating African language. Evidence for this argument is provided and include features such as word order within an NP, verbal inflections, subject pronoun copying, and double plural marking.
The implications of this argument for the search for universal constraints in codeswitching are examined. Die Stellungnahmen zu diesem Thema sind unterschiedlich. Ziel dieser Studie ist festzustellen, ob der Halbvokal [j] ein im Lexikon der Sprache distinktives Segment ist oder nicht. Syntax It is a familiar observation that in multiple wh constructions where movement could potentially affect a number of wh -phrases, it is the structurally superior wh -phrase that must be chosen for movement.
The familiar minimal pair in 1 illustrates this "Superiority Effect". Who saw what? The general phenomenon of an operation being required to affect the structurally highest member in its set of potential operands is also observed in German Sentence Negation henceforth GSN. In German sentences containing indefinite noun phrases, prefixing one of the indefinites with the morpheme k - as shown in 3 marks sentence negation. When multiple indefinites are present, it is the structurally superior one that must be k -marked. Sentences that violate this pattern simply do not express neutral sentence negation 2c.
Eine Frau sah einen Mann. A woman saw a man. K eine Frau sah einen Mann. Neg-a woman saw a man. Eine Frau sah k einen Mann. A woman saw Neg-a man.! That is, I argue that both constructions involve movement and that the sentence negation structure for 2c is ruled on the same grounds as 1b. Further I show the compatibility of my proposal with GSN involving definite noun phrases. I also demonstrate that apparent counterexamples to the generalization above can be attributed to the presence of a tripartite structure induced by focus or a generic operator.
My proposal, if correct, has important consequences for the analysis of negation, and also suggests that superiority is a general phenomenon, extending beyond wh -movement. HORNSTEIN presents a Minimalist reinterpretation of this phenomenon, suggesting that a locally bound reflexive is a trace, created by A-movement of the antecedent, in a Case position reflexivization henceforth.
Although it derives the long-noted distributional similarity of A-traces and reflexives, and is thus quite attractive, Hornstein's suggestion is not tenable. This study presents a re-examination of binding phenomena within the Minimalist framework, and concludes that anaphors undergo A-movement, thus becoming A-traces, in LF; hence, their distributional similarity follows. Instead, this study adopts Lasnik's forthcoming suggestion that A-movement does not leave a trace.
Without A-traces, reflexivization does not hold, favoring a more traditional treatment of reflexives viz. Language and politics have rarely been more fatefully intertwined than at present. All of these developments place insistent new demands on linguists to rededicate themselves to public linguistics in the next century.