Edinburgh, Philip L. Cambridge: Hakluyt Society, The Complete Works of John Smith. Written by Smith in Virginia, this document contains the first appearance of Pocahontas in the historical record but no mention of the rescue. Powhatan treats the captive Smith with "kindness," and he is sent back to Jamestown without incident. Pocahontas, "a child of tenne yeares old. Wingfield, Edward Maria. This account by the first president of the Virginia council mentions Smith's captivity and freedom but not the Pocahontas rescue episode -- another piece of evidence for those who question Smith's veracity.
Editor Deane, for instance, determines the rescue an "embellishment" that never happened. A Gentleman of Elvas. Chapter 9: "How this Christian came to the land of Florida, and who he was: and what conference he had with the Governor. Richard Hakluyt. The Indians and Their Captives. James Levernier and Hennig Cohen. Westport: Greenwood, The story of John Ortiz, of the Narvaez expedition, rescued by the daughter of the chief, an Indian princess [Hirrihigua], who argued "that one only Christian could do him neither hurt nor good, telling [her father] that it was more for his honour to keepe him as a captive" -- cited by some skeptics as a possible source for Smith's Pocahontas episode.
A map of Virginia VVith a description of the countrey, the commodities, people, government and religion. Oxford, Richmond, New York: Da Capo, This is not a history of the colony; for that see Symonds' companion Proceedings. Pocahontas appears here only in one sentence exemplifying Indian language that translates as: "Bid Pokahontas bring hither two little Baskets, and I will giue her white beads to make a chaine. Strachey, William. Louis B. Wright and Virginia Freund. London: Hakluyt Society, Strachey's A true reportory , his account of the shipwreck he survived on the way to Virginia in Strachey was in the colony from and became Secretary , is thought to be a source for Shakespeare's The Tempest.
Here in his history of Virginia not published until Major's edition he memorably describes Pocahontas as an year-old cartwheeling "little wanton," now married to Kocoum, whose right name was Amonute -- but there is no mention of connection with Smith, who had left Virginia by this time. Symonds, William. The Proceedings of the English Colonie in Virginia. Narratives of Early Virginia. Lyon Gardiner Tyler. New York, This is a companion to Smith's A Map of Virginia it's often called Part II or an appendix , and they may have been published together though they have separate title pages.
Proceedings is a collection of narratives by colonists compiled by Symonds, an English minister who wrote an important justification document for the Virginia Company, and describes Smith's captivity for a third time without the rescue by Pocahontas: instead, Smith "procured his owne liberty. Smith drew heavily on the Proceedings for his Generall Historie , where he connects Pocahontas with several of the episodes mentioned in this earlier work. Chamberlain, John. Letter To Sir Dudley Carleton. The Letters of John Chamberlain. Norman Egbert McClure. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, Letter of August 1, , by Virginia Company shareholder Chamberlain in England to eminent diplomat Carleton advising of news of Pocahontas's capture and the promise of gold among the terms of ransom.
First of five letters by Chamberlain mentioning Pocahontas. Purchas, Samuel. Purchas his pilgrimage. Or Relations of the vvorld and the religions obserued in all ages and places discouered, from the Creation vnto this present In foure parts. Book 8, chapters , pp. Purchas, a friend of Smith's and successor to the great Richard Hakluyt as England's premier collector and editor of travel narratives, apparently uses a manuscript of Symonds' Proceedings here as his source.
His account of Virginia and the pertinent Pocahontas episodes grows over the subsequent editions of his work. In this first version there is only mention that "They carryed [Smith] prisoner to Powhatan, and there beganne the English acquaintance with the savage Emperour" -- the fourth published account without mention of a rescue by Pocahontas. The "womens entertainment" or "Virginia Maske" episode is also mentioned, but without reference to Pocahontas.
Dale, Thomas. New York: Da Capo Press, Letter of June 18, , by the governor of Virginia, who recounts an unsuccessful voyage to Powhatan to negotiate the ransom of Pocahontas and also his role in her conversion to Christianity, a conversion that preceded her marriage to Rolfe, which, in turn, precipitated a period of peace. Enhanced account of Virginia in this second edition probably using the published Symonds' Proceedings as his source.
Rolfe, John. Letter to Sir Thomas Dale. In a letter to the governor, Rolfe details his crisis of conscience over his attraction to Pocahontas and asks if he should "desist" or "persist" in his desire to marry her. Whitaker, Alexander. Minister of the B. In a letter of June 18, , Jamestown minister Whitaker, the "Apostle of Virginia," claims that Governor Dale's "best" work has been his "labor" to convert Pocahontas. Hamor, Ralph. Hamor, Secretary of the Virginia colony, recounts in detail Captain Argall's capture of Pocahontas, her marriage to Rolfe, and includes the three letters of Dale, Rolfe, and Whitaker, cited above, as appendices.
The second Chamberlain letter, this one June 22, , mentioning Governor Dale's arrival in London with the "most remarquable" Pocahontas. Maclean, John. Publications of the Camden Society, vol. Westminster, Letter of June 20, "Sir Thomas Dale retourned frome Virginia; he hathe brought divers men and women of thatt countrye to be educated here, and one Rollfe, who maried a daughter of Pohetan, the barbarous prince, called Pocahuntas, hathe brought his wife withe him into England.
The worst of thatt plantation is past, for our men are well victualled by there owne industrie, but yet no profit is retourned. Letter to Queen Anne. Book 4, pp. In his history Smith claims there seems to be no other corroboration to have sent this "little booke" to the Queen on Pocahontas's arrival in England. In it, we learn that Pocahontas now described as "a child of twelve or thirteen years of age" when he knew her not only rescued Smith more than once but was instrumental in saving the entire colony from starvation.
If this letter is genuine, it contains the first description of "the" rescue, though there is no indication it was publicly known in Van de Passe, Simon. Levis in his Grolier Club edition. William M. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, According to the Smithsonian see link , "This engraved portrait of Pocahontas [was] created from life during her time in England. Letters , , The third, fourth, and fifth Chamberlain letters mentioning Pocahontas.
January 18, : Pocahontas was "graciously used" by the king, "well placed at the masque," and returning to Virginia "though sore against her will". February 22, : "Here is a fine picture of no fayre Lady". March 29, : "The Virginian woman whose picture I sent you died last weeke at Gravesend. Jonson, Ben. Ben Jonson: Selected Masques. Stephen Orgel. New Haven: Yale UP, The Christmas masque Pocahontas attended in London.
The Pocahontas story is further updated here in the 3rd. Rolfe explains to a patron why he left their son in England after Pocahontas died and hopes he will not be criticized for doing so: "I know not how I may be censued [sic] for leaving my childe behinde me, nor what hazard I may incurr of yo'r noble love and other of my best frends. A True Relation of the State of Virginia. Henry C. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, Rolfe's rosy picture of Virginia in was obviously meant to re-energize the flagging fortunes of the Virginia Company in London on the trip that brought Pocahontas to London as well.
Though conversion of a "poore, wretched and mysbeleiving people" was the climactic thrust of his justification of the colony, there is no mention of Pocahontas. Virginia Company letter to Captain Argall. In his History of the Virginia Company of London , Edward Neill quotes a letter of August 23, , suggesting that Argall has some ulterior motive in advising them that the Indians "have given the country to Mr. Rolfe's child" Susan Myra Kingsbury. John Rolfe having died, his brother Henry asks that he be compensated out of the estate for bringing up Thomas, his child with Pocahontas.
New Englands trials Declaring the successe of 80 ships employed thither within these eight yeares. July 16, Perhaps to establish his credentials for command, Smith responds to the massacre of colonists in Jamestown with a vigorous assertion of his proven ability to handle the Indians, and he affirms Pocahontas as "the meanes to deliuer me [and who] thereby taught me to know their trecheries to preserue the rest.
Luther Samuel Livingston. Cambridge: privately printed, The document designed to announce and to raise money for the printing of the Generall Historie informs potential readers that Powhatan's "daughter saved his life, sent him to James towne and releeved him and all the English" -- the second verifiably public reference by Smith to the fabled rescue from captivity. Shakespeare, William. The Tempest. Act 3, scene 2, line An Encouragement to Colonies. In a survey of New World colonization associated with his grant in Newfoundland, Alexander cites the marriage of Rolfe and Pocahontas as evidence of the value of intermarriage, "for it is the onely course that vniting minds, free from jealousies, can first make strangers confide in a new friendship.
This, of course, is the source of the widest range of information about Pocahontas, and the source of the full description of Smith's captivity and subsequent rescue by her. In addition, references to Pocahontas include: her name in an Indian language example the one listed above from Smith's Map , supplying food to stave off starvation, reviving spirits with her love, making amends for injuries, negotiating for prisoners, entertaining Smith with the "maske," traveling through the "irksome woods" to save Smith from a murder plot, saving Richard Wyffin and Henry Spilman, falling captive herself, marrying Rolfe, visiting England, reunion with Smith, and death.
Vaughan, Robert. Smith to be Slayne. The first image of the rescue here in the book that, as we have seen, contains the first full description of it, if not the first public mention. This first depiction of the rescue, say Rasmussen and Tilton, with elements based on earlier representations of Virginia Indians, is not itself totally original, and, in turn, it stands at the head of a long line of such images, as the image gallery in the archive attests.
The Staple of News. Act 2, scene 5, lines Mention of Pocahontas in the famous playwright's dialogue between Picklock and Pennyboy Canter. The Fourth Part. In his fourth and final work on Virginia see , , , Purchas now uses Smith's Generall Historie to describe the rescue by Pocahontas p. Though he includes the letters by Dale and Whitaker, he only cites three other mentions of Pocahontas from Smith: her diplomatic mission, her "darke night" rescue of Smith, and her rescue of Henry Spilman.
Most importantly, Purchas also reports from personal experience that in London Pocahontas "carried her selfe as the Daughter of a King" and, in his presence, was accorded respect by the Bishop of London p. Smith's verbatim reference to Pocahontas from the New Englands trials p. The Mapp and Description of New England. Same as An Encouragement to Colonies , London, Brathwait, R.
In this brief laudatory poem, Pocahontas is mentioned with other women who did service for Smith. A3 complimentary verse by Brathwait , 58 [chap. In addition to the mention of Pocahontas in the poem in the above entry, her rescue of Smith is listed in a summary of his Virginia "exploits": "How [Powhatan's] daughter Pocahontas saved his life, returned him to James towne, releeved him and his famished company, which was but eight and thirty to possesse those large dominions.
Theodor de Bry et al. Frankfurt, Discovering the New World. Michael Alexander. America was a premier, richly illustrated multi-volume collection on voyages and travel and contains three images from the Pocahontas story. This 3-part image follows Smith's capture, the Indian ritual to explore Smith's threat, and the rescue.
This image records an incident in the attempt by Governor Dale to force Powhatan to deal for hostage Pocahontas or else. Gereon Sievernich. Madrid: Ediciones Siruela, Captain Argall conspired with the Indians to trick Pocahontas into captivity. Rasmussen and Tilton point out the burning in the background as rationale for the abduction pictured in the foreground and middle image.
Thomas Rolfe, Pocahontas's son, comes to Virginia. This according to Neill , p. The reason is to visit Cleopatra, his mother's sister -- the first we hear of this name. New York: Knopf, Following p. Mossiker calls this a model for a tavern sign source is a Smithsonian Anthropology collection. Fuller, Thomas. The History of the Worthies of England. In the Cheshire section. John Freeman. A entry on Smith in what has been called the first attempt at a dictionary of national biography.
There is no mention of Pocahontas, and there is a skeptical view of Smith's credibility: "From the Turks in Europe, he passed to the Pagans in America, where towards the latter end of the Raign of Queen Elizabeth, such his Perils, Preservations, Dangers, Deliverances, they seem to most men above belief, to some beyond Truth. Yet have we two witnesses to attest them, the Prose and the Pictures both in his own book, and it soundeth much to the diminution of his deeds, that he alone is the Herauld to publish and proclaime them.
Ogilby, John. Ogilby was a pioneer British atlas maker. He introduces a virtually exact copy of a goodly chunk of Smith's account of his capture and rescue by Pocahontas from the Generall Historie thus: "Many other Quarrels and Encounters there were in the Infancy of the Plantation. Rolf, and died at Gravesend in an intended Voyage back to her own Countrey. Vries, S. Curieuse aenmerckingen der bysonderste Oost en West-Indische verwonderens-waerdige dingen.
Utrecht: J. Ribbius, Can anyone translate the Dutch? The "Die Barbarische Liebe" image of the rescue in Happel is a version of the one in this text. Crouch, Nathaniel [pseud. Robert Burton]. The English Empire in America. Crouch, author of perhaps a dozen successful histories, used the 3rd.
Hamburg, Sabine Kyora and Uwe Schwagmeier, eds. Bielefeld: Aisthesis, Happel, Eberhard Werner. See above "Die Barbarische Liebe" also in for the image in this work. Wharton, Henry. Laura Polanyi Striker. U of North Carolina P, Striker feels that the purpose of this unlikely, unpublished account of Smith's life in Latin by a prolific indefatigable theologian was meant to restore heroic status to a man "thwarted from the start by his being a commoner in an aristocratic venture.
Be that as it may, there are significant variations there is no confrontation between Smith and Indians over the murder plot that Pocahontas saves them from in her dark night journey , Wharton embellished significantly at times calling Pocahontas a "mad woman" at the rescue, describing Pocahontas's dark night journey as inspiring "even those who sleep with terror" , and the charge that Smith wanted to marry Pocahontas is only in Symonds and Purchas , not the Generall Historie.
So in Wharton we first see some tentative free-lancing with the historical record. He plays loose with the story for dramatic purposes, and the result is a very good read, indeed. In George Hillard used Wharton in his biography of Smith, so that this unpublished work did have influence in the 19th century. Beverley, Robert. The History and Present State of Virginia. Charles Campbell. Beverley's influential book is the first history by a native Virginian. Beverley mentions the rescue without fanfare but focuses on Pocahontas's marriage with Rolfe and reunion with Smith.
For instance, he gives a long litany of reasons why the English would have been better off accepting Indian proposals for intermarriages, and he prints the entire Smith letter to Queen Anne. Alexander, Oldmixon, Fontaine, Russell, Chastellux, etc. Aa, Pieter van der. Volume Leyden, Translators should apply. Oldmixon, John. The British Empire in America.
New York: Kelley, Oldmixon is aware of Smith's Generall Historie , referring readers there for a description of the rescue, saying only that Pocahontas's "wonderful Humanity" in saving Smith is a "remarkable Instance, how vain we are to our selves, in thinking that all who do not resemble us in our Customs are barbarous. Whether it was on account of their being Pagan or Barbarians we cannot decide; or whether that Nicety was not very unseasonable in the Infancy of the Settlement.
Addison, Joseph. Spectator No. Rasmussen and Tilton p. Steele, Richard. One of many versions of the Pocahontas-like story of a shipwrecked Englishman who is aided by a native girl; they become lovers; he is rescued; he sells her into slavery. For discussion of the significance of the story, see Hulme Woodbury, Mary.
According to Rasmussen and Tilton, this s painting by a Boston schoolgirl is "a colonial girl's conception of an ideal woman," with "elements of formal English portrait painting of the Georgian period as it was exported to the American colonies. Lubbers says "she looks like a graduate from a young ladies' finishing school Churchill, John [Awnsham].
A collection of voyages and travels, some now first printed from original manuscripts, others now first published in English. A full edition of Smith's True Travels. As in the original, the rescue is listed in a summary of Smith's Virginia "exploits. Letter ["Accidentally hearing read a Paragraph"]. Boston Gazette June Lawrence W. Likely the first proposal, says Towner, "urging the elevation of Pocahontas to the status of American folk heroine" via a poem, a painting, or a statue.
The anonymous English correspondent writes: "For my own part I don't recollect any of the celebrated Heroines of Antiquity of half so just a behaviour or that any way exceed her in virtue or true greatness of Mind. How many Statues and Medals would have been made by the Romans in memory of such a Lady? Keith, Sir William. The History of the British Plantations in America. New York: Arno Press, Keith, governor of Pennsylvania from before returning to England, paraphrases Smith's account in the Generall Historie except for a last paragraph drawn from Beverley , recounting Pocahontas's two rescues of Smith, her abduction and marriage, the trip to England and the meeting with Smith.
Nolin, Jean Baptiste, Jr. Stuart E. Brown, Jr. Berryville: Pocahontas Foundation, Also in Brown , Appears in Brown and Brown Brown contains notation that it was done by Jean Baptiste Nolin, Jr. This revised edition acknowledges use of Beverley and an account by William Bird I in the first edition see , as well as awareness of Keith's work see the preface. And this edition contains the curious comments about the rescue and Smith's self-aggrandizement, here marked in italics, a century before the skepticism of Charles Deane, Henry Adams, and others: "The manner of his Treatment among the Indians, and his Escape, his Friendship to Nautaquaus the King's Son, and the surprizing Tenderness of Pocahonta, his Daughter, for him, when he was about to be executed, are Incidents equally agreeable and surprizing, but pretty romantick and suspicious, Capt.
Smith having never dropt his main Design to make himself the Hero of his History. Smith's Relation of his Adventures in this Country relates not so much to the Country, Settlement and Trade, as to himself. Stith, William. Williamsburg, New York: Sabin, Spartanburg: The Reprint Co. Stith, well-regarded influential historian of Virginia after Beverley and president of the College of William and Mary, claims dissatisfaction with previous histories and access to original sources.
His work on Pocahontas appears mainly, though, a long, long comprehensive paraphrase solely of Smith's Generall Historie the rescue, Pocahontas as gift-bringer, her second rescue on the dark night, saving Wyffin, abduction till the trip to England, which is a blend of material from Smith, Beverley King James's snit , and Purchas Tomocomo's failed arithmetic. However, what Stith adds to the Pocahontas story comes at the end, information about her son Thomas, who was first left in England with Sir Lewis Stukley, but then transferred to Henry Rolfe, "and afterwards became a Person of Distinction and Fortune in this Country," where the "Imperial Family of Virginia.
Goadby, Robert. An Apology for the Life of Mr. Bampfylde-Moore Carew. Chapter Oxford: Clarendon Press, Englishman Bampfylde-Moore Carew was a real, nationally known character -- swindler, imposter, jokester -- whose life was a best seller in numerous and various editions for a hundred years. In this biography he joins the Gypsies, becomes King of the Beggars, is transported to Maryland, escapes, and sojourns with the Indians, at which point, we get the Smith-Pocahontas story rescue, abduction, marriage, trip to England, meeting Smith as an example of noble action by an Indian.
Goadby has been described as a key figure in the book trade of the west of England, and his Pocahontas account is copied from Oldmixon. Robert S. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, May not be Pocahontas and Thomas. See Tilton , Thomas would not have been this old when Pocahontas died. Someone has suggested that the woman might be one of the Indian women who came to London with Pocahontas and stayed on see Sedgeford Hall is a property of the Rolfe family in England. Derived from van de Passe, what Rasmussen and Tilton call a "loose copy" note that Rolfe's name is given as Thomas.
Booton Hall is the English ancestral home of the Rolfes. Smith "is preserved by the affection of a young Indian damsel. Pocahontas "was the first christian Indian of these parts, and, as my author says, perhaps the most worthy that has ever been since, her affection to her husband extremely constant, and on his part to her in every respect reciprocal. Seems to be chiefly copied from Stith, except for embellishments like this, which may be the first expression of love of Pocahontas for Smith: "By this means he [Smith] got them all to resolve to maintain their fort, and to provide for themselves in the best manner they could; and this resolution was in a few days confirmed by Pocahontas's coming with a great number of attendants, and bringing them plenty of all kinds of provisions, which she continued to do every four or five days for some years afterwards; for Capt.
Smith had impressed such an idea upon the Indians of the English courage and knowledge, and such a terror of their instruments of war, that Pocahontas easily prevailed with her father and her countrymen to allow her to indulge her passion for the captain, by often visiting the fort, and always accompanying her visits with a fresh supply of provisions; therefore it may justly be said, that the success of our first settlement in America, was chiefly owing to the love that this young girl had conceived for Capt.
Smith, and consequently in this instance, as well as many others, that love does all that's great below " Closing the circle, this account describes the reunion of Smith and Pocahontas in this manner: "She at first shewed great resentment against him, which is a plain sign of her having expected that he would have married her, and indeed it was what he ought in gratitude to have done. However, such is the native modesty of the sex in all countries, that she did not even then insinuate any such expectation" Another first here is the charge of ingratitude to Smith for not marrying Pocahontas.
Fontaine, Peter. Letter to Moses Fontaine. March 30, James Fontaine, et al. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, Virginian Fontaine sees value in intermarriage with the Indians land inheritance, peace, conversion , "but this our wise politicians at home put an effective stop to at the beginning of our settlement here, for when they heard that Rolfe had married Pocahontas, it was deliberated in Council, whether he had not committed high treason by doing so, that is, marrying an Indian Princess; and had not some troubles intervened which put a stop to the inquiry, the poor man might have ben hanged up for doing the most just, the most natural, the most generous and polite action that ever was done this side of the water.
Paris, Salmon, Thomas. A new geographical and historical grammar. In what might be the first mention of it since the Generall Historie , the erotic "Virginia Maske" episode that Smith recounts is the subject of a section entitled "Diversions" of the Indians. See Douglass Douglass, William.
Sheri L. Ruffin, R. In the daylight hours, he is a lawyer in private practice. Abram Fulkerson of the 63rd Tennessee Infantry Regiment was elected president. Letter of 15 March has a letterhead depicting the battle at Mill Springs.
Boston, [re-issue of ed. Reprints from Salmon the section based on the erotic "Virginia Maske" episode that Smith recounts. Specifically , , The introduction to this long series of articles Jan. Copies accounts by Stith of Pocahontas's two rescues of Smith, her abduction, marriage, trip to England, and reunion with Smith, even including Smith's letter to Queen Anne these last two points do not seem directly drawn from Stith and may go back to Beverley.
Winkfield, Unca Eliza. This early novel, which Burnham editor of the edition says "adds a great deal to our understanding of the cross-articulation of gender, empire, and race," begins with a version of the Pocahontas story in which rescuer and rescued marry. Captured in the massacre, the narrator's father is about to be executed when the king's daughter "stroked my father with a wand, the signal for deliverance.
So "happy was my father. Rose, Johann Wilhelm. Ansbach, Reprinted: Ed. Stephan Kraft, Hannover: Wehrhahn, Not yet seen. Can anyone locate, translate, and provide an annotation? Alvarez, Francisco, Asturian. Noticia del establecimiento y poblacion de las colonias inglesas en la America Septentrional. Madrid, The Rolfe part of Pocahontas's life. Russell, William. Volume 2. Russell, a successful historian who also published major works on modern and ancient Europe, wrote this history during the Revolutionary War, which he calls in his sub-title "the present unhappy contest. For instance, he says, the "kindness of this fair Indian" did not stop with the rescue of Smith, but "Pocahontas supplied her favourite so plentifully with provisions, that he was enabled to save the lives of many, who must otherwise have perished for want.
Granger, James. A Biographical History of England. This enormously successful work is a catalogue of engraved historical portraits, and Granger is important for devising a system, a taxonomy for collectors. But he has nothing to say about Pocahontas in his Smith entry: "He afterwards went to America, where he was taken prisoner by the savage Indians, from whom he found means to escape. Chalmers, George. Chalmers, a loyalist forced to leave America in , wrote to arouse opinions against the Americans. While the notes show he was aware of Smith, Purchas, and Stith, Chalmers like Crouch a century before doesn't mention Pocahontas at all, and, in fact, finds little exciting at all in his chapter on Virginia: "In vain shall we search their history for the fate of battles, the sack of cities, the conquest of provinces, for those objects that fix the attention or melt the heart.
Scheibler, Carl Friedrich. Leben und Schicksale der Pokahuntas, einer edelmuthigen Americanischen Prinzessin; eine wahre und lehrreiche Geschichte. Berlin, Can anyone translate and provide an annotation? See article by Sabine N. Meyer Pocahontas, Schauspiel mit Gesang. Reprinted: Hannover: Wehrhahn, Kent, John. Biographia Nautica: or, Memoirs of those Illustrious Seamen, to whose Conduct the English are Indebted. Dublin, Standard mentions of the rescue and the abduction, but the section on Pocahontas in England has this claim, which, though the notes only mention Smith, smells of Beverley: "When preparing for her departure, she expressed a grateful sense of the honours which she had received, and asserted that it was her firm intention to avail herself of every measure that could effect the establishment of an uninterrupted harmony betwixt the English and the Indians.
Chastellux, Marquis de. Travels in North America in the Years , , and Translated by George Grieve. Translated and notes by Howard C. Rice, Jr. He recounts a visit to the Bollings where he was surprised to find the descendant of Pocahontas -- whom he calls "the protectress of the English" and an "angel of peace" -- quite European looking. His version of Pocahontas's life -- very influential, quite colorful, much copied even as late as Blake -- has some interesting touches: savages "more affected by the tears of infancy, than the voice of humanity," begging Smith to "spare her family" and "to terminate all their differences by a new treaty," bitterly deploring her fate as a captive, throwing herself into Smith's arms in England, living "several years" as model wife there.
Chastellux also, like Beverley, raises the issue of intermarriage, nailing James I for being "so infatuated with the prerogatives of royalty" to be upset that one of his subjects married a princess for other discussion of intermarriage in this early period, see Alexander, Oldmixon, Fontaine, Russell, etc.
Tilton believes Chastellux to be the "most important purveyor" of the Pocahontas narrative before John Davis. A bit loosely but clearly drawn from Chastellux. Perhaps for the first time, Pocahontas is given a voice in direct discourse at the rescue scene: at the "fatal moment" Pocahontas cries out, "if you kill him the first blow must fall on me. Directly from Chastellux. The last clause in the title is interesting, no? Indicative of the emphasis on the intermarriage and its positive value in this early period. Smith, Samuel Stanhope. Philadelphia, Appendix on Lord Kaims's Discourse , Winthrop D.
Cambridge: Harvard UP, Relevant to the topic of intermarriage that we've seen raised several times so far in the archive for instance, Beverley, Oldmixon, Fontaine, Russell, Chastellux. Smith argues, against Kaims, that in four or five generations, the "dark tinge" in mixing of races "may be entirely effaced. John Smith to the Queen, concerning Pocahontas. Reprints exactly and without editorial comment the "little booke" relating to Pocahontas's London visit, as well as his description of their meeting, that Smith published in the Generall Historie.
But the excerpt is noteworthy for its footnotes critical of whites Noah Webster is editor of the magazine : Pocahontas's charge that Englishmen lie much is "just"; "civilized men lie more than savages"; "How ought christians to blush to be charged with lying and ingratitude by savages! The key pages are , , , The American Plutarch series title tells us that this anonymous piece was by Belknap, who published this again in his very influential American Biography : contains accounts of the rescues, the "Virginia Maske" though see Salmon and Douglass, perhaps the first time in an historical account since Smith , the reunion in England, and the death.
Belknap notes his sources as Smith and Purchas. Morse, Jedidiah. Elizabeth Town, Morse was the most eminent geographer of his day, author of the first textbook on American geography published in the United States. Brief mention of Pocahontas's marriage, her trip to England where she was treated by merited "attention and respect" , and her death, leaving a son who eventually returned to Virginia "where he lived and died in affluence and honour.
Thanks to Colin Wells for the citation, who says, "It's fascinating as an attempt to use the Pocahontas myth to justify the war against the Miami Ohio tribes in the early s.
Castiglioni, Luigi. Antonio Pace. Syracuse: Syracuse UP: Interesting script by the Italian Naturalist. Smith is condemned to be burned alive. Pocahontas pleads for him, and he was "united with his liberator, and was respected by the Indians, who regard as one of their nation the prisoners that they allow to live. Geography made easy: being an abridgement of the American geography. The account is the same as Webster, Noah. Northampton, Webster, of course, is the premier early American educator and dictionary maker.
This story, likely adapted from Belknap, of Smith as a model hero "Such a man affords a noble example for all to follow when they resolve to be good and brave " describes Pocahontas saving him from death, warning him about another plot "Thus this kind and friendly young Indian saved the English from her father's snares" , and their meeting in England "an agreeable interview with the amiable Pocahontas". In what is perhaps her first appearance in a schoolbook, Pocahontas is climactically represented as an "excellent woman, who would have done honor to christianity itself.
According to Rasmussen and Tilton, in this re-issue of the van de Passe engraving, Pocahontas's "features have become more those of an Englishwoman": "To eighteenth-century European eyes, this less 'native' Pocahontas perhaps comes closer to achieving the beauty that would have been expected of the 'Indian princess' of legend. Belknap, Jeremy.
Specifically , , , Published in magazine form Belknap's collection of biographies was very influential and much copied. The Smith life contains accounts of the rescues, the "Virginia Maske," the reunion in England, and the death. In the magazine publication, Belknap notes his sources as Smith and Purchas. The book version is the same as the magazine version except for the deletion of a transition into the Virginia section and the addition of several paragraphs at the end -- the Pocahontas sections are the same in both versions.
Hardie, James. A list of not only eminent men but memorable events. Entry for Rolfe, "married to Pocahontas" -- no entry for Smith. Latrobe, Benjamin. Edward C. Carter, et al. Latrobe, thought of as the father of the American architectural profession and the most important engineer of his day, covers eight generations of genealogy here. Rather fascinating: this edition contains images of Latrobe's handwritten chart. It is somewhat singular that, though the family are rather proud of their royal Indian blood, not one of them should have preferred the names of their Ancestors in their own family excepting Robert Bolling, son of Colonel John Bolling who named a son and a daughter Powhatan and Pocahontas.
He was a man of great wit and learning. Lendrum, John. Trenton, The marriage with Rolfe -- "an opening for friendly intercourse with the natives" -- is given primacy in this brief two-paragraph account. Winterbotham, William. An historical, geographical, commercial and philosophical view of the American United States, and of the European settlements in America. Volume 3.
Same account as Morse. Robertson, William. The History of America. Books IX and X. One of the foremost historians of his day, Robertson, head of the University of Edinburgh, moved in intellectual circles with such men as David Hume, Adam Smith, and Thomas Carlyle. His section on Virginia draws on Smith, Stith, Beverley, and Purchas -- with some interesting variations.
Pocahontas's motivation in saving Smith is "that fond attachment of the American women to their European invaders," and her marriage to Rolfe is the consequence of frequent visits to Jamestown, "where her admiration of their arts and manners continued to increase," not to being a prisoner which is not mentioned at all , as well as the impression her superior beauty made on Rolfe.
She seems to have been baptized in England, that is, after her marriage, and Robertson follows Beverley and others regarding intermarriage in criticizing the English for failure to intermarry the result of cultural shyness and lack of flexibility , which the Indians "naturally imputed. Bingham, Caleb. Designed for the Use of Schools. Same as Webster this year. From Chastellux. Perhaps her first appearance in a school book under her own heading.
Walker, John. Elements of Geography, and of Natural and Civil History. In a succinct listing for historical events arranged chronologically, there is no mention of Smith's captivity, but the listing for reads: "John Rolfe was married to Pocahontas, the daughter of Powhatan, the famous Indian chief. This connection, which was very agreeable, both to the English and Indians, was the foundation of a friendly and advantageous commerce between them. Hartford, A collection of essays designed to "form the morals as well as improve the knowledge of youth.
Perhaps Pocahontas's first appearance in a school book under her own heading. Foster, Hannah Webster. Letter to Maria Williams from Sophia Manchester. In what is basically a treatise, Webster, author of the noted early novel The Coquette , presents through an extended correspondence between schoolgirls her ideas on female education. Reacting to the section in Belknap on Smith: "While we tremble and recoil at his dreadful situation, when bending his neck to receive the murderous stroke of death, the native virtues of our sex suddenly reanimate our frame; and, with sensations of rapture, we behold compassion, benevolence, and humanity triumphant even in a savage breast; and conspicuously displayed in the conduct of the amiable, though uncivilized Pocahontas!
Davis, John. This is the beginning of the Davis cottage industry on Pocahontas that would include eight or so works and extend into the s. Here in a chapter seemingly unrelated to the rest of the plot, the narrator's son tells the family a "once upon a time" story of Pocahuntas, an "Indian Queen," not a "squaw," who saves Captain Smith from death by burning at the stake. This tale, drawn from Chastellux and modified only by fire as the death tool, is tame compared to Davis's following works, which are credited with blowing Pocahontas representations wide open. Tilton says that Davis removes the Pocahontas story from the "exclusive preserve of historians and biographers.
Newburyport, First American edition: see Irving Putter. Berkeley: U of California P, Chactas, a Natchez Indian, is saved from death by the half-Spanish and Christian Atala, but she cannot marry him because she has taken a vow of virginity -- and she commits suicide. See Lombard and Tilton for discussion of the effect of Chateaubriand's depiction of Indians on the Pocahontas story, though Tilton says it is "far more likely" that the Pocahontas story influenced Chateaubriand. But Tilton makes the point that "the catastrophic power of the mixing of the races" was an important factor in the fear of miscegenation that characterized the early 19th century.
Heaton, Nathaniel. Wrentham, Rene: ou, Les Effets des Passions. Rene: A Tale. Companion story to Chateaubriand's Atala Croswell, Joseph. Pocahonte plays a bit part as an Indian princess daughter of Massasoit in love with a white man in this story of the Pilgrim forefathers overcoming dissension in the early days of Plymouth. See edition by Bergstresser and Thifault Bolling, Robert. Memoirs of the Bolling Family.
Bolling is the husband of Jane Rolf, the grand-daughter of Pocahontas. It is this Mrs. Robert Bolling whom Chastellux visits in London, New York, Alfred J. New York: Holt, With Pocahontas within Powhatan's calm retreat, Rolfe envies "not the gaudy great. Contains four poems within the section on Pocahontas. Poems: , , , The second of Davis's book work on Pocahontas, containing perhaps the first poems written about her, and containing the wildest representation of her yet -- initiating future directions.
Drawing on Smith and Beverley for his basic "facts" and motivated to best Chastellux as a memorialist "No Traveller before me has erected a monument to her memory, by a display of her virtues" , Davis completely romanticizes Pocahontas for the first time. Davis's main contribution to the developing representation of Pocahontas is to make love her primary motivation see Kimber Pocahontas falls deeply in love with Smith at first sight; he recognizes her love, cultivates it, but doesn't reciprocate it.
When Smith leaves, Rolfe capitalizes on her emotional devastation, catches her on the rebound, and eventually marries her, taking her to England, where there is reunion with Smith. For the first time, Pocahontas is "hot. Rolfe turning Pocahontas away from Smith: should your thoughts recall "a faithless lover," then "disclaim his fickle love.
Hays, Mary. Volume 5. A one-paragraph biography in an enormous collection of women's lives from all over the world the volume begins with Mary, Queen of Scots by this English radical, a member of the Godwin-Wollstonecraft circle, who fought for the freedom and equality of women. Intimations of this movement in Foster Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 23 : Simply notes that Latrobe gave a talk with this title on February See Latrobe Edinburgh Review 2.
In a quite tepid review overall, the Pocahontas part gets the booby prize: "We never met with any thing more abominably stupid than this story, and must be excused for passing it over with very little notice. Wirt, William. The Letters of the British Spy. Introduction by Richard Beale Davis. Burk, John. Petersburg, This lively, almost literary, historical account of early Virginia, has two very prophetic insights. Rolfe, of whom nothing had previously been said, in defiance of all the expectations raised by the foregoing parts of the fable. Marshall, John. The Life of George Washington.
The influential Supreme Court Justice includes accounts of the rescue, abduction, and marriage as part of a "narrative of principal events" before the Revolution in his biography of Washington, making him, says Tilton , a "figurative descendant of the Jamestown planters. The Annual Review, and History of Literature; for Arthur Aiken. It is introduced with peculiar impropriety, in the history of captain Smith and the female Indian Pocahontas.
This history, Mr. Davis assures us, has been related with an inviolable adherence to truth, every circumstance being rejected that had not evidence to support it: but by attributing his own verses to one of the personages, he has given a character of fiction to the story which was in itself too romantic to be believed without a solemn affirmation of its authenticity. Not clear if this is by Davis or drawn from his Travels. Begins right at Smith's capture rather than developing his previous history as in Travels , but the basic plot is the same and some phrases are exact or similar.
Most obvious difference is the classical reference: Pocahontas is Dido, Hortensia, the Goddess of Plenty. And ends with: "When we reflect that so much virtue, heroism, intellect and piety adorned so young a native of our country, we cannot but regard America as the natural clime of greatness, and consider Pocahontas, as exhibiting proof of the powers and capacity of savage nature, rather than an exception to common degeneracy.
Striking article; reprinted several times -- see below -- through Reprinted from the Monthly Anthology this year, same title. Arrowsmith, Aaron. A New and Elegant General Atlas. Brief notice of the marriage of Pocahontas and Rolfe and their honorable descendants, as well as the anecdote about Tomocomo counting the inhabitants of England.
Also contains the poem "Sonnet to Pocahontas" ["Where from the shore, I oft have view'd the sail"]: Davis's third work on this topic, this one boasting Thomas Jefferson as subscriber. Tilton calls this the first admittedly fictional representation of Pocahontas's life. Same basic story of Pocahontas smitten with Smith who transfers her passion immediately to Rolfe when he is presumed dead as in the Travels , but there is considerable exotic and erotic elaboration in descriptions of Pocahontas cherub lips, luxuriant tresses, filling bosom and events the happy couple's "first intercourse" and "conjugal endearments".
Pocahontas is even "hotter" than she was in Appendices include accounts of Smith and Jamestown, a memoir of the author, as well as Smith's letter to the Queen introducing Pocahontas. A final note mentions the possibility of a sequel called Massacre of the Virginia Planters. Kribbs quotes a subscription appeal to "the Philadelphia ladies of tender sensibilities," who "will all come forward with alacrity as Patronesses to a volume that records the virtues, and develops the conscious flame of Pocahontas the lovely, the susceptible and artless!
In this fourth work on Pocahontas, by far the longest, Davis continues to flesh in the whole Pocahontas story from Travels to Captain with more details, like, for instance, adding in the abduction portion of her story. Kribbs references a flap over Davis's plagiarism in this book that was started by a reviewer in the Monthly Anthology and Boston Review March Holmes, Abiel. Two of Ashby's men were killed, and a number wounded. Ashby received four wounds, and his horse fell dead as he was leaving the field which the enemy ran from, and escaped across a small river to evade pursuit.
The brother, Capt. Dick Ashby, was fatally wounded. Turner Ashby was afterwards promoted to a Colonelcy, and fell nobly in the cause of the Southern Confederacy. Nicholas, a brig and two schooners, the brig was laden with a valuable cargo of coffee, and the schooners one with ice and the other with coal.
Thomas known also as Col.
Zarvona , of Maryland, was the hero of this affair. Disguised as an old French lady, who could not speak a word of English, he took passage on the St. Nicholas, at Baltimore, for Washington. After getting down into the bay he threw off his disguise, and, with the cooperation of his men, who shipped as New York Zouaves, took the steamer. He was joined by Capt. Hollins, of the Confederate Navy, at Point Lookout, who participated in the capture of the other vessels. The other officers associated with Zarvona in the achievement were Lieut.
Alexander, Adjutant, and Lieut. These three headed the boarding Parties in the captures. The steamer, after being placed in the hands of Capt. Hollins, who was assisted by Lieuts. Sims and Minor, of the C. Thorburn, of the Virginia Navy, with fifteen sailors from the steamer Yorktown, captured the brig and schooners, and proceeded to Fredericksburg.
Subsequently, however, he Zarvona had the temerity to visit Baltimore, much against the advice of his friends. As was feared, spies were watching his movements, and he was captured and imprisoned, not being allowed the privilege of exchange. Jackson's advance, consisting of a portion of Col. Harper's regiment from Augusta County, about strong, and a squadron of cavalry under Col. A sharp fire was kept up by the main bodies for an hour and a half, with a loss to the enemy estimated at the minimum at 67 killed, 85 wounded and 53 prisoners--three killed on our side and five wounded.
When the firing ceased Col. Jackson fell back, to a more secure position. A body of Floridians, under command of Maj. Widsmith, armed the small steamer Madison with two light guns, and, while the Massachusetts and her prizes were becalmed off the coast, bore down upon one of them, the Fanny, captured her and the commanding Lieutenant, Selden, with the prize crew. The other schooners were also taken possession of and carried into Suwanee. Dreux, of Louisiana, fell in a skirmish on the Peninsula 6th July. He was killed by a fire from an ambuscade.
The first Georgia regiment, Col. Ramsey, encountered three regiments of the enemy, in which conflict the Federals were routed. The Georgians took a number of prisoners and all the camp equipage of the enemy. The Confederate loss was but two, while that of the Federals was about sixty. This apparently small affair brought on the battles of Rich Mountain and Laurel Hill. The main army of the enemy advanced from Phillippi, and took up a position on the hill about half a mile from the Confederate post, which was, however, obstructed from view of the latter by a still higher hill directly between the opposing forces.
On hearing of their advance, our General checked them by taking possession of the hill on the left of them and about daybreak the two forces commenced operations. The fight continued all day and part of the night with little or no result except the loss of many lives. During the night our forces retired from the field with the hope of inducing the enemy to follow so as to get them within range of our guns.
The brave stand made by our troops kept the invaders at bay for some time, but there was a reverse of fate in the conflict which took place the next day, the 11th, at Rich Mountain. A detachment under command of Lieut. Pegram, which numbered only three companies, was employed in raising earthworks on the mountain slope. This small force succeeded in keeping in check, for some time, several thousand Federal troops, and although sorely pressed not more than 40 were killed. The gallant Pegram was severely wounded and taken prisoner.
Many of the men in his command, who were believed to be either killed or taken prisoners, afterwards reached Gen. Garnett's camp. Pegram's entire command consisted of about 1,, which were in three divisions, two of which were commanded by Cols. Heck and Scott. The Federal troops, through the aid of a Union traitor, managed to cut off Pegram from succor from either party; they heard the roar of battle, but had received no orders to move.
Scott, when he saw no chance of succoring Pegram, ordered a retreat, which was effected in good order to Greenbriar river. Heck made his way through the mountain passes and joined Garnett's forces, which were at Laurel Hill. Nearly all of Capt. Irvin's company, from Buckingham, were killed, together with all the officers, with the exception of Lieut. Colonel Bondurant. The Southern loss was 75 killed and about as many wounded. The Federal loss was 11 killed and 35 wounded. Garnett, on learning of the engagement, left his entrenched camp at Huttonville with the main body of his army, leaving what is supposed to be but a camp guard there.
He advanced to succor Pegram, and had arrived within three miles of Beverly, when he was met by Pegram's flying forces, who were foremost in the retreat. As they rushed in among Garnett's troops, they created a panic which made the General unable to control them; he retreated accordingly in the direction of St. McClellan followed up his immense conquest of a handful of Spartans, and marched towards Beverly, encountering Gen.
Garnett, with the main body of Confederates, at Laurel Hill. The overwhelming numbers of the invading army did not deter the gallant Garnett from disputing his advance. He formed in line of battle, and poured a raking fire into the enemy's ranks, which was promptly returned. A charge was made upon his battery, which was feebly resisted by the Confederates. In a short time the line gave way and the brave Garnett was struck by a musket ball, and fell dead, while in the act of attempting to tally his men.
Beauregard and Johnston, and the invading army under Gen. The Southern troops were strongly entrenched at Manassas Junction, and also had advanced batteries along the line of Bull Run, about five miles towards Centreville. The advance guard of the Federals was at the latter place 5, strong, our force numbering about 3, On the 18th the invaders advanced towards Manassas Junction, and attempted to cross the fords at several points, but were repulsed by the Confederate troops three times, with a heavy loss on their side. At about 5 o'clock in the afternoon they retreated in great confusion, two of our regiments pursuing them.
A large number were taken prisoners. The casualties on the Confederate side were few. The pursuing regiments, finding a large force at Fairfax C. Beauregard preferring to give them battle there. The General was hurriedly sent for, and quickly came to the scene of action, when he ordered a retreat, which proved to be a brilliant strategic movement. At first the troops murmured, but when they heard that it was Beauregard's wish, were perfectly satisfied.
The regiments engaged in this brilliant affair were the First Virginia, Col. Moore, the Seventeenth Alexandria , the Mississippi and the Louisiana. The enemy outnumbered them in proportion of three to one. The Washington Artillery, of New Orleans, were in the early stage of the action. Moore was wounded. James K. Lee and Lieut. Miles were killed. The enemy's loss about ours killed, wounded and missing. Two cannon and stand arms were taken from the enemy. This brilliant affair sometimes called the battle of Bull Run was the prelude to the grand battle, which took place on Sunday, 21st, two days after.
Full of hope and emblazoned with arrogance, notwithstanding his numerous defeats, Gen. McDowell to scatter Beauregard's forces to the four winds of heaven. Months of preparation had completed his "Grand Army," and placed them upon a war footing. The word went forth from Washington "Advance! The night before the expected victory, hosts of functionaries, congressmen, editors, reporters and civilians rushed to witness the expected victory. Aye, even the ladies so far forgot themselves as to join the gay party, and feast their vision on ghastly corpses, broken limbs, and the unnatural struggle of brother against brother and father against son.
So sure were the invaders of victory, that they brought rich viands, wines and cigars with them for a merry feast on the field of blood and carnage! Johnston and Patterson had for some days previous been playing a game of chess between Winchester, which was occupied by the former, and Martinsburg, the quarters of the latter. Patterson, tired of Johnston's by-play, made a retrograde towards the Potomac, probably with the intention of joining McDowell, though he did not. The cunning Johnston, suspecting this, made a forced march, and on the evening of the 20th was by the side of Beauregard, while the Pennsylvania commander was--nowhere.
There are numerous accounts of this severe conflict--all of them differ. Those of the northern journals, however graphic they may be, are tinged with that illiberality which, during the entire war, characterized the Republican press. Those of the southern journals were carried away by enthusiasm and a warm, patriotic desire let the world know what could be done by men fighting for their homes and those they loved best.
President Davis was on the field, and aided Beauregard and Johnston in their grand work. History will give the details of this great victory for the young republic--my limits will not allow me to enter into them; the dispatch of President Davis sums up all.
The ground was strewn with those killed for miles, and the farm houses and grounds around were filled with his wounded. The pursuit was continued along several routes towards Leesburg and Centreville, until darkness covered the fugitives. We have captured several field batteries and regimental standards, and one United States flag.
Many prisoners have been taken. Too high praise cannot be bestowed, whether for the skill of the principal officers or the gallantry of all the troops. The battle was warmly fought on our left, several miles from our field works; our force engaged there not exceeding fifteen thousand--that of the enemy estimated at thirty-five thousand.
In this severe battle the losses of both sides were as follows:. Jackson, of Missouri, met the Union forces, under Col. Seigel, unexpectedly, at about eight miles north of Carthage. They were 2, strong, and having the choice of ground, had planted their cannon in the most commanding position. Jackson had about 12, men, of whom only about 2, were armed, except with shot guns. Ben McCulloch came to Jackson's aid, but too late for service on that field.
Following up the foe, he brought on the severe battle of Springfield. The Federal forces, under Gen. Lyon, left the town, where they quartered, for the purpose of attacking the Missourians, under Gen. Ben McCulloch. There were many conflicting accounts as to the result of this battle, both in the northern and southern journals. McCulloch calls it Oak Hills in his official report, and says that his effective force was 5, infantry, 15 pieces of artillery, and 6, horsemen, armed with flint-lock muskets, rifles and shot guns.
Lyon attacked him on the left, and Gen. Seigel on the right. The conflict was long and bloody, and the Federals lost many of their best officers, among them Gen. Lyon, who fell early in the day. The Confederates also met with severe loss among their officers. Slack and Clarke were severely wounded, Gen. Price slightly. Weightman was killed, also Lt. Austin, Col. Brown, Capts. Blackwood, Enyard, and Lieut. It was a great victory of the troops of Missouri and Arkansas, who took prisoners, several stand of colors, and a large quantity of good arms. Our killed amounted to , wounded , missing Magruder, whose camp was at Yorktown, marched towards Hampton, then occupied by Gen.
Butler's Federal troops. He went within a mile and a half of the town, and halted. At night large fires were built at this point, and the General withdrew to within three miles of Hampton. After midnight, finding that the enemy made no demonstration whatever, he despatched some two or three regiments of infantry and a troop of cavalry into town, with instructions to burn it.
This force entered the town, and with the aid of some of the citizens, set fire to it at about 3 o'clock in the morning. By daylight it was reduced to ashes. Many of the Confederate officers and privates were citizens of Hampton, and owners of the property they consumed. The burning of the town was considered a military necessity, as it was ascertained that it was to be made the winter quarters of the Fedrals. It was not fired by the troops, but caught from the other buildings.
The vandals of Butler's army desecrated the hallowed grave-yard where lay the remains of the ancestors of many an honorable Virginia family. They cooked their meats on the venerated slabs that recorded the names of the departed--played cards and frolicked away the time under the shade of the revered old trees. The writer of this poem cherishes many sweet memories of the town of Hampton--he resided there, formed many lasting attachments, and the remains of his beloved partner lie sleeping there. His rhapsody will therefore be excused by the generous reader.
The steamer Quaker City followed shortly afterwards. These vessels carried over guns and 4, men. Much curiosity and interest were manifested for several days to know where this fleet would turn up. On the 28th the fleet appeared off the coast of North Carolina. Fort Clarke was first attacked, and the garrison being soon driven out, sought refuge in Fort Hatteras, some two miles further south. The enemy then poured in a shower of shell and round shot upon Hatteras, which our men were unable to return effectually because their long range guns were not mounted.
The attack was made at 8 o'clock in the morning, and kept up until 11 A. Eleven of the enemy's vessels were engaged in the bombardment. From six to eight hundred prisoners were taken by the enemy, among them Col. Martin and Commodore Barron. The enemy were repulsed in less than an hour, losing all their wagons and baggage of every description.
They also suffered a loss of 50 killed and wounded, and from 60 to prisoners. Rosencranz, after making a reconnoissance, found Gen. Floyd with his army of 5,, with 16 field pieces, entrenched on the top of a mountain on the west side of Gauley River. The position was guarded by heavy forts and a jungle. The action was opened by Floyd's Artillery. The enemy was mostly posted in the road--and some accounts have it that his loss was terrible, while on the Confederate side only one was killed, one drowned and seven wounded.
Rosencranz made a vigorous attack, driving in the advanced guard and assailing Floyd in his position a short distance from the North bank of the Gauley.
The enemy was frequently and successfully repulsed, and, it is said, with a loss of four or five hundred. Floyd was slightly wounded; he crossed the river, and Rosencranz fell back. Floyd, by this movement, effected a junction with Gen. Wise, on the Lunday road. This affair is sometimes called the "Battle of Carnefax Ferry. Mulligan with 3, Federal troops, surrendered to the Confederate forces under Gen.
According to the Northern accounts Mulligan's reinforcements were intercepted and driven back. The situation of his men grew desperate, sorties and skirmishes took place constantly. The Home Guard became disaffected and first raised the white flag. Finally the Federal officers held a council and decide to capitulate. Price demanded the unconditional surrender of the officers; the men were allowed to depart without arms, after taking an oath not to fight in future against the Confederate States.
A large quantity of specie and other property were captured. After the surrender of Lexington, Gov. Jackson with the Legislature assembled and passed the ordinance of secession. Lexington was made the capital of the State of Missouri. Rain at intervals came to gratify their thirst; instances occurred where soldiers spread out their blankets until thoroughly wet, and then wrung them into their camp dishes, carefully saving the priceless fluid thus obtained.
Reynolds attacked the Confederate forces under Gen. Jackson at Greenbriar river. The enemy had been strongly entrenched and fortified on the top of Cheat Mountain, and our troops considering it hopeless to attack such a position, tried every means to get them out. At daylight on the 13th, Reynolds came down with 5, men, and drove in the Confederate pickets. The battle then commenced and raged four and a half hours, when the enemy retreated with a reported loss of 1, killed and wounded. The Confederate loss was seven killed, twenty wounded and twelve missing.
Anderson, and the Federal camp broken up. This camp was occupied by the celebrated Billy Wilson's Zouaves. They burnt and destroyed every building except the hospital , with immense quantities of rations, equipments, stores and munitions. All the cannon were spiked. Loss of the enemy very great--that of the Confederates was 40 killed and wounded. One account states that Billy Wilson made his escape to Fort Pickens sans culotte.
Rains and Brunner started on a scouting expedition, taking 26 men with them. Near Barboursville they were fired on by the Federals in ambush; they routed the enemy, and returned to camp, giving the alarm. Battle assembled a force, and made after the enemy, who was reported at Barboursville. A brisk firing commenced near the town--a gallant charge was made by our troops, the Federals fled, leaving nineteen dead on the field, besides arms, ammunition and two prisoners.
Powell, of Cummings' regiment, was killed. Ashby's cavalry engaged a detachment of the enemy between Leesburg and Harper's Ferry, Va. Federal loss 16 killed and 15 wounded; the Confederate loss one killed and one wounded.
It seems that Commodore Hollins, of the C. Navy, conceived the idea of breaking the blockade by scattering the Federal ships off New Orleans. He succeeded, after a very short struggle, in driving them aground--one of them was sunk. The attempt was brilliant, but accomplished no good. The details of the Northern journals were truly sickening, and it was pronounced more bloody, in proportion, than the fierce conflict at Bull Run.
On Sunday, the 20th, the Confederate troops were prepared for hot work, Gen. Evans having received information that the enemy were crossing the river. On Monday, about 8 o'clock, the battle commenced with a roar of artillery, which was the signal for the opening of one of the severest fights of the war. The enemy were frequently repulsed with great slaughter, leaving their dead and mangled bodies strewn over the ground like autumn leaves; and, in their precipitate retreat, it is estimated that more than one hundred found a watery grave, while no less than were made prisoners.
Stone commanded the Federals, amounting to about 2,, the advance of Gen. Banks' army--their total loss, was estimated at from 1, to 1,; among their killed was Col. Baker, ex-United States Senator. Our entire loss in killed and wounded was , among the former was Col. Burt, of the 18th Mississippi regiment, a brave and accomplished soldier. The assault of this huge armament was gallantly resisted by the Confederate gunners, but overcome by a largely superior force, the forts were compelled to yield.
The battle commenced at between 8 and 9 o'clock, A. The Forts Walker and Beauregard opened upon them, which was replied to by broadsides from the frigates. For a long time the combat was terrific, guns of the heaviest calibre being used. Our forts fired several of their ships, but the flames were quickly extinguished.
At about 3 o'clock but three of the guns of Fort Walker remained in position. Our men, especially the German Artillery, behaved with great coolness and bravery. Our loss at Fort Walker was supposed to be about in killed and wounded, of which the German Artillery lost eight killed and fourteen wounded. The garrison were compelled to evacuate the position and retreat to Bluffton. Sometime after the Hilton Head battery had to be yielded, that of Bay Point was also left by our troops, who fell back on St.
Helena and Beaufort. The fight commenced at 11 o'clock in the morning, and lasted until 5 o'clock in the evening. The northern and southern accounts of this battle are very conflicting. The loss of the Confederates is estimated at , killed, wounded and missing, that of the Federals at The Confederates fairly claim a brilliant victory, as the enemy left the field and retreated across the river. It took place a few miles beyond Piketon, on the Louisa River, just west of the mouth of Ivy Creek, which empties into the Louisa from the north side.
The road beyond the river from the mouth of the Ivy is over a steep bluff, rising thirty feet perpendicularly from the water. Along the side of the road for four or five hundred yards west of the mouth of the Ivy, which is spanned by a high bridge, the mountain rises to a great height by a very precipitous ascent, thickly covered with ivy, laurel, and other evergreens. Into this covert, along the steep ascent, Capt. Jack May placed his sharp-shooters, about in number, a short time before the advance column of the enemy came up. He then set fire to the bridge.
The enemy's advance soon appeared, suspecting nothing; and, seeing the bridge on fire, supposed that our force had retreated to the other side. When four or five hundred yards of the road below him was filled with men, crack went the rifles of Jack May and his sharp shooters along the whole distance. They continued to load and fire for several rounds, and then, at a signal, they vanished around the mountain, and up Ivy Creek to a temporary crossing, which they had taken care to provide, and which they destroyed after they had crossed the river.
May lost two of his men killed, and fifteen wounded. The dead of the enemy were piled in heaps in the road. Between five and six hundred is said to have been the loss of the enemy. May found his way safely back to the camp of Col. The action was commenced on the evening of the 11th, and renewed on the morning of the 12th.
The Federals, who were doubtless guided by Union men in the vicinity, came upon the Confederates under Col. Johnson, soon after daylight, from the North, their strength being four regiments of about 1, men each; our force consisted of three regiments of an average of each, two battalions numbering together men, and two batteries of four guns each.
The fight continued until 2 o'clock, P. Anderson, of the Lee Battery, and Mayneham were killed. In this battle it is said that Col. Johnson "covered himself with glory. Stuart commanded the Confederate forces. Martin was killed in the action. It was a hard fought conflict, in which our troops signalized themselves in the firm stand they took against the invaders. The Confederate force was under the immediate command of Maj. Of the death of Gen. Zollicoffer, a writer gives the following particulars: "The Mississippi regiment was ordered to the right, and Battle's to the left, and immediately afterwards, riding up in front, Gen.
Zollicoffer advanced to within a short distance of an Ohio regiment, which had taken a position at a point unknown to him, and which he supposed to be one of his regiments. The first intimation he had of his position was received when too late. At that moment his aid drew his revolver and fired, killing the individual who first recognized Gen. With the most perfect coolness the General approached to the head of the enemy, and drawing his sabre, cut the head of the Lincoln Colonel from his shoulders. As soon as this was done, twenty bullets pierced the body of our gallant leader, and he fell from his horse a mangled corpse.
After suffering severely, our troops, by order of Gen. Crittenden, retreated to their entrenchments. Jennings Wise, the son of General Wise, lost his life. The battle of Roanoke Island took place on the 7th and 8th February. The Federal forces and fleet were under Gen. Burnside, and the Confederates under Gen. The naval conflict was short and active.
Lynch, who commanded, was badly wounded and taken prisoner. Three of our gunboats were saved, but the loss of life was great. It was stated that our loss in killed, wounded and prisoners was 1, About escaped from the Island. The Federals landed at two points, and at one of the points they waded up to their waists to effect a landing. Among the officers killed, besides Capt. Wise, were Capt. Coles, 46th Virginia, Lieut. Selden, C. Monroe, 8th North Carolina. Most of the regiments were from Tennessee and Mississippi, but Virginia, Alabama, Texas and Arkansas also contributed their quota, and swelled the dimensions of the army to the size named.
Active hostilities commenced early in the morning of the first day, but were confined to the outposts and pickets. The next morning our artillery opened upon the enemy, and met with a ready reply; the artillery duel continued throughout the day. The next day witnessed pretty much the same display, with the exception of an occasional skirmish between the infantry and sharp-shooters of both armies; the gunboats also came up the river and opened a vigorous fire upon Fort Donelson; but after a severe exchanging of shots for several hours, fell back disabled.
On Friday, the 15th, the cannonading was more terrible than at any time during the siege. Again the gunboats renewed their attack, and again they were compelled to retire, this time they were placed thoroughly hors du combat. The infantry also became warmly engaged. During the fight a desperate charge was made by two Illinois regiments upon the 2d Kentucky and 10th Tennessee, but they were met almost hand to hand, and sent back to their entrenchments, leaving a frightful proportion of their dead and mangled upon the field. The day closed without any practical advantage to either party.
The next day was the Rubicon of Fort Donelson. The enemy had received large reinforcements, and now numbered 50, Snow lay on the ground to the depth of three inches, and a cold, blinding sleet poured incessantly in the faces of the soldiers. Still our men faltered not--a desperate attack was made upon the right flank of the enemy, under the command of Gen. Not more than 10, of our men were engaged in this movement-- but it was successful against triple their number. The struggle now became desperate, and the enemy were routed in every direction, when they were again strengthened by a reinforcement of 30, fresh troops encompassing the place and completely surrounding our forces.
It was useless to contend against such odds; the Fort and army capitulated to the enemy on their own terms. Floyd and Pillow saved portions of their commands. The total number of our killed and wounded was estimated at from 2, to 3,, while that of the Federals is said to have been from 4 to 6, Among our killed were Lieut.
Clough, Texas; Lieut. Robb, Clarksville, Tenn. May, Memphis, and Capt. Porter, Nashville. Mayor Cheatham, on the arrival of the Federal troops in the vicinity of the city, repaired to Edgefleld, where they were encamped, and formally tendered the city with all the public stores it contained, to the commander of the Federal forces. It was, perhaps, the first city of such size, and containing so large an amount of valuable stores, that ever surrendered under similar circumstances, to so inconsiderable a force--only 15 men were sent to take possession.
The inhabitants, however, received the soldiers coldly, and only two or three Union flags were displayed. Sibley commanded the Confederate forces, and Gen. Canby the Federal; it resulted in a complete defeat of the latter with great loss. It was a great victory; six thousand eight hundred prisoners were captured, and twenty-five millions worth of property secured to the Southern Confederacy, including the territories of Arizona and New Mexico.
Two first class frigates, the Cumberland and Congress, were destroyed, and the steamer Minnesota and several smaller Yankee craft disabled. The "sea-monster" Virginia formerly the United States steam frigate Merrimac had been for a long while fitting for the expedition at Gosport Navy Yard; and when she crept out of the harbor at Norfolk she struck terror to the blockading squadron of Lincoln.
The Virginia was under the command of Capt. Buchanan, who was wounded in the engagement. The loss of life on the side of the enemy was terrific, on our side it was small. The Virginia was assisted in this sparkling affair by the Confederate steamers Patrick Henry and Jamestown, besides two or three smaller vessels. Several prizes were taken from the Yankees.
The great batteries at Newport News were silenced. The Virginia offered battle the next day, but had but little to contend with. Their gunboats, about fifty in number, hauled up within gun-range of the batteries, and opened upon them with eight-inch shell. The fight then became general. We had but 6, men in the field and at the batteries--our loss in killed, wounded and prisoners was about 1, Campbell and Lieut. Haywood were killed. The forts stood the siege bravely, but were compelled to surrender to superior power; the town of course capitulated.
By some it was called the battle of Sugar Creek, and by others the battle of Elkhorn. The loss was severe on both sides, and the result of little advantage to either. Van Dorn was in command. The enemy's force amounted to 20, McCulloch and McIntosh, and Col. Herbert were killed, Gens. Price and Slack wounded. Shields, near Winchester, Va. It is generally called the battle of Karnstown, and resulted to the advantage of the Federals, though they were severely dealt with by the Confederates, who afterwards retreated towards Strasburg.
The engagement was brought on by the gallant Col. Ashby, who always fought the enemy whenever he showed himself; it commenced about 4 o'clock and terminated when night closed upon the scene of conflict. Both parties retired from the battle field. Our loss was not over 50 killed and wounded, while that of the enemy was about three times that number. Augustine, Florida, approached the city in a barge, about 40 in number, with a flag of truce and the American ensign flying.
The surrender of the city and the keys of the Fort were demanded, with the notice that in the event of a refusal the vessels outside would proceed to shell them. The City Council was immediately convened, and, after deliberation, the keys were delivered to the Federal officer in command of the barge. Various small battles and skirmishes took place on the banks of the Western rivers and on the coast, their gigantic fleets of gunboats and transports laying desolate the towns and country within the range of their guns.
Island No. It came off on the 6th and 7th of April. Among the many brave chiefs killed on our side, we have to record the name of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, a most accomplished officer and brave soldier. This gave the command of the Confederate army to Gen. Beauregard, who planned the attack with his usual ability. The Southern and Northern accounts of this affair differ materially; and it is difficult to glean from the mass a reliable detail.
The fight of the first day commenced with heavy skirmishing. Hardee made the advance upon the enemy's camp, taking him completely by surprise.
Bragg commanded the centre and Gen. Polk the right wing of the army. During the first day the enemy made a great many stands, but in every instance his ranks were broken and disorganized, and occasionally the retreat was very wild and disorderly, the troops breaking to run. The action continued until 6 o'clock in the evening. Our force in this engagement did not exceed 30,; that of the enemy could not have been less than 70,, under the command of Gen. Grant, the victor of Donelson. The next morning, soon after sunrise, the enemy having been heavily reinforced, made an attempt to force our position.
His attack was spirited, and the day's fighting was far more severe than that of the previous day, he being aided by new men from Gen. Buell's command. Beauregard was compelled to order his troops to fall back, and in so doing, for want of transportation, we were compelled to abandon much of our spoil and of the substantial fruits of our victory, saving only fourteen cannon. The events of both days were considered a thorough victory.