In a man named James Burbage built the first theater. Others followed. Those who could afford the best seats were sheltered from the weather. However, the poor customers stood in the open air. They were called groundlings. Rich people sat on the stage! There were no female actors in the 16th century. Boys played women's parts. Plays were usually held during the day because of the difficulty of lighting a stage. Meanwhile Tudor children played with wooden dolls.
They were called Bartholomew babies because they were sold at St Bartholomew's fair in London. They also played cup and ball a wooden ball with a wooden cup on the end of the handle. You had to swing the handle and try and catch the ball in the cup. The history of games. Boys usually went to a kind of nursery school called a 'petty school' first then moved onto grammar school when they were about seven.
The school day began at 6 am in summer and 7 am in winter people went to bed early and got up early in those days. Lunch was from 11 am to 1 pm. School finished at about 5 pm. Boys went to school 6 days a week and there were few holidays. Many Tudor children learned to read and write with something called a hornbook. It was not a book in the modern sense. Instead, it was a wooden board with a handle.
Fixed to the board was a sheet of paper with the alphabet and the Lord's prayer the Our Father written on it. The paper was usually protected by a thin slice of animal horn. Discipline in Tudor schools was harsh. The teacher often had a stick with birch twigs attached to it for hitting boys. When they were about 15 or 16 the brightest boys might go to one of England's two universities, Oxford and Cambridge. Of course, many boys did not go to school at all. If they were lucky they might get a 7-year apprenticeship and learn a trade. Some craftsmen could read and write but few laborers could.
As for girls, in a rich family a tutor usually taught them at home. In a middle class family their mother might teach them. Upper class and middle class women were educated. However, lower class girls were not. Tudor children who did not go to school were expected to work. They helped their parents by doing tasks such as scaring birds when seeds were sown They also helped to weave wool and did other household tasks.
In the 16th century children from rich families usually had their marriages arranged for them. Children from poorer families had more choice over whom to marry. Yet girls usually married young. Many were married when they were only 15 or Boys often married between the ages of 18 and The history of education. For rich people fashion was important. For the poor clothes had to be tough and practical. All classes wore wool. However, it varied in quality.
The rich wore fine quality wool. The poor wore coarse wool. Linen was used to make shirts. Only the rich could afford silk. Rich people also embroidered their clothes with silk, gold or silver thread. Rich women wore silk stockings. Men wore short trouser-like garments called breeches. They also wore tight fitting jackets called doublets. Another jacket called a jerkin was worn over the doublet. Over the jerkin, rich men wore a gown, or later in the 16th century a cloak or cape. However instead of a doublet many workingmen wore a loose tunic.
It was easier to work in. Some workingmen wore a leather jerkin called a buff-jerkin. Men also wore stockings or woolen socks, which were called hose. Tudor women wore a kind of petticoat called a smock or shift or chemise made of linen or wool and a wool dress over it. A woman's dress was made of two parts, a bodice, and a skirt. Sleeves were held on with laces and could be detached. Workingwomen wore a linen apron. In Elizabethan England many women wore a frame made of whale bone or wood under their dress called a farthingale.
If they could not afford a farthingale women wore a padded roll around their waist called a bum roll. Tudor women did not wear knickers. However men sometimes wore linen shorts. In the 16th century everyone wore hats. Poor women often wore a linen cap called a coif. After by law all men except nobles had to wear a woolen cap on Sundays. In the 16th century buttons were usually for decoration. Clothes were often held together with laces or pins.
Furs in Tudor Times included cat, rabbit, beaver, bear, badger and polecat. People used mostly vegetable dyes such as madder for red, woad for blue or walnut for brown. The most expensive dyes were bright red, purple and indigo. Poor people often wore brown, yellow or blue. Some Tudor women wore wigs. Both Elizabeth and Mary Queen of Scots wore them. When Mary was beheaded her wig came off.
In the 16th century laws called sumptuary laws laid down what each class could and could not wear. Complicated laws said that only people with a certain amount of wealth could wear certain expensive materials such as velvet and silk. These laws, of course, made no difference to poor people since they could not afford costly material anyway! However, the laws were supposed to keep the classes separate.
You were supposed to be able to tell which class somebody belonged to by his or her clothes. However many people simply ignored the sumptuary laws. The history of clothes. In the 16th century many people died in epidemics of sweating sickness possibly influenza. Many others died of smallpox. Queen Elizabeth I almost died of it. Even if you survived smallpox it could leave you disfigured with pox marks or blind.
Syphilis was also rampant. Dysentery was also a killer. Tudor doctors were very expensive and they could do little about illness partly because they did not know what caused disease. They had little idea of how the human body worked. Doctors thought the body was made up of four fluids or 'humors'. They were blood, phlegm, choler or yellow bile and melancholy or black bile. In a healthy person all four humors were balanced but if you had too much of one you fell ill.
If you had too much blood you would be bled either with leeches or by cutting a vein. Too much of other humors would be treated either by eating the right diet or by purging taking medicines to cause vomiting. Doctors also thought infectious disease, like plague, was caused by poisonous 'vapors', which drifted through the air and were absorbed through the skin. One of the main ways of diagnosing sickness was uroscopy examining urine by its appearance, its smell or even by its taste! Astrology also played a part in Tudor medicine. Most doctors believed that different zodiac signs ruled different parts of the body.
Since doctors were so expensive many people went to see a wise woman if they were ill. The wise women would have knowledge of different herbs and their properties and might be able to help. The average lifespan in the 16th century was shorter than today. Average life expectancy at birth was only So only half of all people born lived to be However many Tudor people died while they were still children.
Out of all people born between one third and one half died before the age of about However if you could survive to your mid-teens you would probably live to your 50s or early 60s. Even in the 16th century some people did live to their 70s or 80s. The history of medicine. In the 16th century warfare was transformed by guns. Early guns were lit by a slow match string was soaked in saltpeter and when it was lit it smoldered. The slow match was touched to the gunpowder to ignite it. However, in the early 16th century, the wheellock was invented.
A metal wheel spun against a piece or iron pyrites generating sparks that ignited the gunpowder. As a result, most cavalry stopped using lances. Instead, they carried two or three pistols each, ready to fire, and sabers. Meanwhile in the early 16th century the traditional English weapon was the longbow but handguns were increasingly used. The longbow slowly went out of use in Tudor times. However, muskets took a long time to reload and during that time the infantry needed protection from cavalry. They were protected by men with pikes a weapon like a long spear.
Tudor forts and walled towns often had bastions. While dreaming one night, he found himself in Tel'aran'rhiod. On further investigation he discovered that he had somehow been transported to Moridin 's lair. While there, he had a genial conversation with Moridin who revealed to Rand that he is Ishamael reborn and that balefire is the only way one of the Forsaken can be destroyed for good. Before leaving Rand was shocked to find that Moridin didn't bring Rand to his place. Atop Dragonmount, from a German translation book cover. Following his revelation on the summit of Dragonmount , Rand returns to Bandar Eban to atone for his previous failure.
Finding the city starving and desperate, he and Min locate three former King's Guards, who he commissions to help restore order, providing them with weapons and armor from Tear. These soldiers quickly gain five hundred recruits. Rand then returns to the Sea Folk ships, which are kept under quarantine by Iralin , the dockmaster. Iralin is initially enraged at Rand's abandonment of Arad Doman, but Rand boards one of the Sea Folk ships and discovers that every unopened bag of food remains unspoiled. Rand continues to descend deeper into madness, attempting to become ever harder and harder, especially after Semirhage who had been freed by Shaidar Haran and Elza Penfell , bound him with the Domination Band and forced him to try to strangle Min.
In a fit of desperation, Rand unknowingly reached out and channeled the True Power , possibly through his link with Moridin. Later, Rand met with Tuon at Falme in order to set a truce. However, despite his ta'veren nature, Tuon refused to accept his conditions. She instead demanded that he bow to her in accordance with the Seanchan Prophecies, causing Rand to leave. While in Arad Doman, his search for the King caused him to come across information concerning the location of Graendal , and, when Nyneave chanced upon one of Graendal's toys operating in Bandar Eban, he took the opportunity to attack her.
Discerning her likely location, he used a disloyal and manipulative Domani noble to determine her presence, and then, in a fitting display of his encroaching insanity, proceeded to destroy the entire manor complex with Balefire, to the disgust of both Min and Nyneave. Ultimately, however, Rand's plans for Arad Doman met with failure, as he was barely able to re-establish the government in the region, the peace process with the Seanchan, held at Falme with the Daughter of the Nine Moons, fell flat on its face, and the grain intended to relieve the famine suddenly rotted.
Faced with this, he abandoned the country to starvation, anarchy, and Seanchan invasion, and returned to Tear. Rand would meet with frustration once again at the meeting with the Borderlanders. Reunited with the Sniffer Hurin for the first time in years, he greeted his old friend with harsh words, and, enraged at the Borderlanders' refusal to meet with him except inside the city of Far Madding, threatened them with destruction and once again returned to the Stone. He returned to Tear , from where he planned to march to Shayol Ghul. He also seemed eager to attack Ebou Dar, but was delayed when he found Tam al'Thor waiting for him in his bedroom.
Rand was greatly angered when Tam accidentally revealed that Cadsuane had brought him there, in his rage nearly losing all control, and almost killing Tam with the One Power. Fleeing to Ebou Dar with the Choedan Kal access key, he came close to carrying out his one-man assault on the Seanchan, but stopped short when he saw all the people of Ebou Dar's concern for him when he was gripped by the summoning sickness. He made a gateway and Skimmed to a seemingly random place, eventually ending up on the top of Dragonmount.
Hours he spends on the top, thinking, getting angry of the world, the Pattern, the Creator, his own fate to save mankind. The finally understood repetition of history, and the mistakes with it like nothing is learned from the past. He is questioning himself, what if the Dark One is right to end this meaningless agony. He starts to draw saidin through the Choedan Kal, more than he'd held when cleansing saidin , great enough to unravel the Pattern itself, all the while bellowing his questions off the mountain. Atop Dragonmount, Rand nearly succumbed to his madness.
Despairing at the futility of his existence, and the fact that history was doomed to repeat itself time after time, he is intended to use it to destroy the entire world and he nearly did so, but relented when the voice of Lews Therin in his head, surprisingly sane for once, suggested that the reason history repeated itself was so that people could have another chance to fix what they did wrong previously.
And so that they could live and love again. He remembers love, peace, joy and hope. Rand's transformation, as noted above, has enabled him to finally become what the Creator intended him to be: an opposition to the Dark One. Almen Bunt sees this as Rand walks down Dragonmount and into the valley, where there is an apple orchard where the apples are going rotten as soon as they are ripe because of the Dark One's taint. Rand's very presence is shown to reverse the taint and rot and allows the apples to be harvested.
While there he thanks Siuan for taking the arrow for him in Fal Dara and receives a letter delivered from Tiana Noselle. He then informs her that he is intending to break all the Great Seals to the Dark One's prison and that he needs the help of saidar as well as saidin this time. As he talks he refers to Lews Therin as himself. He then tells her to meet him at the Field of Merrilor where they will discuss his terms before going on to Shayol Ghul. He then Travels back to the Stone of Tear. He gathers all the High Lords and Ladies of Tear in a line and looks deeply into each one of their eyes.
Weiramon and Anaiyella are both revealed to be Darkfriends and are sent away. He then promises the Aiel that he will always keep his escort of Maidens from now on and that he will meet the toh he has gained. He then sees Tam and goes to him, finally weeping on his shoulder and asks for forgiveness. He then introduces Tam to Min.
Rand returns to Bandar Eban were he suffers a severe bout of guilt for leaving the Arad Doman when it had served it's function. After being cheered up by Min he begins to reestablish the law within the city by promoting Durnham as Commander and Iralin as Steward. Rand's ta'veren nature kicks in and a large proportion of the population begin to start cleaning themselves and the areas around them and going about the routine of daily life. Rand, Min and their guard of now go to the Seafolk ships in port.
After asking to board Milis din Shalada Three Stars ' ship the company head to the hold where all the tainted grain is held. Rand uncovers barrel-loads of untainted grain and wheat that had previously been unopened. Rand then asks Iralin and Durnham to distribute the cooked food to the starving population changing Arad Doman into a semi-functioning city again. Rand then Travels to Maradon where they find Ituralde only just managing to hold onto the city with the timely aid and Bashere and his soldiers. Rand Travels out to the front of the city to face the oncoming invading Shadowspawn army with only his two Maiden guard.
He then creates with the One Power a maelstrom of light and fire and sends tempests of destruction into the ranks of the Shadowspawn army. When the storm finally disapates, tens of thousands of Trolloc carcasses are left across the battlefield, leaving no trace of a single living Shadowspawn. Utterly exhausted he returns to Tear with Bashere and Ituralde's remaining forces. Rand sends Naeff disguised to the Black Tower to deliver a message to Logain.
The message is that Rand was wrong and that the Asha'man are men and not just weapons.
Rand then finally decides to re-meet with the Borderlander army stationed in Far Madding taking Min and Cadsuane with him. Cadsuane is chagrined when Rand corrects her on calling him boy when he is several centuries older than her. She then begins to call Rand by his proper name. Rand greets the four rulers of the Borderlands just outside the city, where each one measures his restraint with a solid strike across his face.
Paitr steps down when Rand answers correctly. They all sit down to formerly discuss matters when Rand asks for their oath of obedience in exchange for him to teach the Borderlander rulers Aes Sedai the secret of Traveling. He asks them to fight under his banner in the Last Battle or to sit in the middle of nowhere and have everyone else do the fighting. Rand is traveling within his dreams when he hears a scream of pain.
He goes to the area where the sounds of distress are coming from and finds a dark, light-less cave. Inside he finds Cyndane in agony. She begs him for help and apologizes for everything she put him through before being dragged out of the dream by her torturer. After being months apart, Perrin and Rand finally catch up with each other at the Field of Merrilor. Rand notices Perrin's growth and how he has become a natural leader. Perrin lends Sebban Balwer to Rand, and they go visit him. Balwer reports that all the monarchs of the world will be present at Rand's meeting on the morrow.
Rand also learns that Elayne is pregnant and that he will be a father. After he has been on the Field of Merrilor for a while, Aviendha visits him in his tent and insists upon bedding him, the maidens audibly voicing approval in the traditional Aiel manner of shouting insults. Upon awakening, Aviendha asks that he grant her a boon, without telling him what it is. She explains that she will know what to request during the meeting, and he promises to grant it, whatever it may be. Rand then has a "shower" with her, channeling water and soap around them, as was done in the Age of Legends.
While asleep, he is pulled into Moridin's dreamshard due to their connection. Rand reveals that he knows that Lanfear lives again. Moridin tells him that her name is now Cyndane and she now hates Rand. They debate the point to their never-ending cycle of battles.
Rand releases his full ta'veren nature and causes sunlight to stream through the clouds and cause all the dying grasslands around to become lush and green again. Moridin is shocked by what he has seen and flees the dream. During the meeting, almost every nation is represented; including some that were considered inconsequential and powerless until this time.
Once everyone who is going to attend is present, Rand reveals a document that he names "The Dragon's Peace". Once he states the basic principle of it, Elayne snatches it from him, hastily reading it for more detail. Once smaller copies are distributed and the rulers begin reading, it becomes clear that they would not willingly sign such a thing, mostly because it fixed their borders where they were.
Rand, being prepared for this, explains that they have no choice. If they refused to sign it, he would refuse to sacrifice himself to face the Dark One. As the chaos proceeds, a figure enters the tent who silences everyone, Rand included. Moiraine quells the chaos, quoting prophesy to make it clear that these events were necessary and expected. As she makes it known that she is still alive, the kings, queens, and even Nynaeve express joy at her return. Moiraine manages to convince those present that the document is worth signing, but it is still unanimous that some details remain to be worked out.
It is at this time that Aviendha reveals the nature of her boon. Seeking to prevent the future she saw in her vision, she requests that Rand include the Aiel in the Dragon's Peace. Rand agrees to this when the other Wise Ones express their support, and Perrin convinces Rand to give them a further purpose. Following this line of thought, Rand assigns the Aiel to be the enforcers of the Dragon's Peace.
To settle the Seanchan issue, he also adds the provision that should it not be signed by the Empress, the document would be void. With these additions, the rulers sign. Rand Travels to the Andoran war-front to meet with Elayne. There they have a big discussion on how the war progresses, tactics, the art of ruling and their babies Elayne carries inside her. They both understand the pressures of ruling and politics which helps strength their connection and love between each other. Elayne asks about Rand being Lews Therin and instead of being shocked by the answer, she believes that it is an advantage to have such wisdom for their cause.
Rand discusses his ta'veren nature. Due to the Dark One having such a negative effect on the world at present, Rand is the Balance, bringing out more random positive occurrences around him. Finally Rand gives her a Seed , in the hope that she can create a new angreal. In return Elayne gives him the Dull dagger. The two stay together for most of the night. Rand next Travels to Lan's camp.
There he gifts Lan with the crown of Malkier for both him and Nynaeve, created from old drawings. Rand tells Lan that Elayne taught him to rule, but Lan himself taught him to stand. He then Travels out into the battle-front against Moiraine's wishes. Rand starts burning away Trollocs as he did at Maradon, until chanelers start throwing shields at him. He starts destroying the Dreadlords where they hide until he realizes that it is probably a trap. A full circle of Dreadlords throw a shield at him and he manages to hold it back before escaping the battle back through the gateway he created.
Rand knows that now is not the time to exhaust himself out on the battlefield, as he needs to be full health for his confrontation with the Dark One. He realizes that chanelers are on the battle-field looking for him specifically to attack him when he appears. Rand can no longer fight the Last Battle out in the open anymore and will have to leave it to others. The night before the commencement of the Last Battle, Rand is walking through one of his dreamshards he has created.
There he finds a dark cavern not of his own creation. He walks in and finds Cyndane, apparently being tortured by Moridin. She attempts to manipulate Rand into helping her but Rand, having integrated Lews Therin's memories into his own, recognized that she was faking her torment in order to engender his sympathy. Found out, she ceased her charade and the two conversed for a short time.
During this conversation, Rand offered her one last chance for redemption, and prompted her to let him see inside her mind in order to examine her sincerity in accepting his offer. Though appearing to genuinely consider allowing Rand to see into her mind, she ultimately refused, citing her recent torments as having caused her to mistrust Rand's intentions. Rand however, understood that Cyndane could simply not let go of her desire for power, and showed her his own mind in order to make her understand that the only feeling he still had for her was pity; not affection for their past relationship, and not anger or bitterness over her betrayals.
As he departed, Rand simply told her to make herself scarce during the Last Battle. Rand Travels to Shayol Ghul and tests whether the dull dagger works. While Rand is there, Perrin approaches him and asks if he can create a gateway into tel'aran'rhiod , where he will enter in the flesh. Rand warns him that it is evil but complies. The two say a final farewell to each other and embrace. Perrin asks for a gateway to be opened at the Field of Merrilor once a day at dawn and then steps through with Gaul into tel'aran'rhiod. Rand then makes his way back to Braem Wood where Elayne's camp is.
A footpath is a rural path, not adjoining a road. It could have been placed there by a crane, for instance. Yeh, right. Lay, Rutgers University Press, A foot-way; 2. A horse-way, which includes a foot-way; 3. A carriage-way, which includes both a horse-way and a foot-way; 4. A drift-way, for driving cattle. His chain became the common measuring tool for land surveyors. Thomson, British Patent 10,, For many women, the Safety bicycle of the s enabled escape.
Later, it was the motorcar which enabled easy illicit liaisons especially when motorcars were made more private, with side windows, a roof and, ahem, a bed of sorts but it had been the bicycle which had given women their first true taste of freedom. Women could ride alone, and many did.
The majority of the entries in a diary by a young Yorkshire lady, written between the years of and , show that Ms. Coddington went for long bicycle rides by herself. Nothing unusual about that today but back then it was pushing the boundaries of what was acceptable.
Many in Victorian society were scandalised by the behaviour of bicycling women, and severely disliked the free-flowing costumes many of them wore, but it was clear to all in the s that the bicycle was a revolutionary vehicle, in more ways than one: it changed society. Among its many other accomplishments the bicycle hastened the emancipation of women.
This particular club was perfectly respectable — the chairwoman was married to the chairman of the Detroit Wheelmen — but bicycling, as a force for social change, was also at the forefront of a different kind of female emancipation. Lesbians of the s latched on to cycling as an activity blissfully in tune with their radical sensibilities. Men and women enjoyed the freedom of bicycling but for women it was especially liberating.
Women on bicycles broadened their horizons beyond the neighbourhoods in which they lived. Parochial records in Dorset show that from , there were marriages between couples from parishes further apart than previously. Cycling helped expand the gene pool. A handsome woman would as soon think of going down town in a pair of stoga boots and plug hat as to ride a bicycle publicly. They are reckless.
Perhaps this sort of editorial mockery was off-putting to some would-be women bicyclists but, clearly, not all: bicycling was wildly popular with middle class women of the s. Chicago also had a chapter of the Unique Cycling Club and it had strict rules on clothing: no skirts were allowed to be worn over bloomers. No doubt the rules were commonly breached, hence the need for codification:. The nuclear bomb was made possible by a cyclist.
However, an earlier trial of asphalt had taken place in Washington, D. This soon failed. Bulletin , 28 January, Bulletin , 18th October, Bulletin , January 27th, The bicycle has done more for good roads, and will do more for good roads in the future, than any other form of vehicle. Wurster, Mayor of Brooklyn, March Bulletin , January 13th, It was uncivilised, it was about to be consigned to history. George E. The cubic feet of fresh air that are literally forced into one while automobiling rehabilitate worn-out nerves and drive out worry, insomnia, and indigestion.
This opinion has been expressed numerous times. The number of people who genuinely do not desire to possess their own private means of transport must be very [low], and we think it safe to base estimates of the future on the assumption that nearly all families who, at any time, can afford to own a car or who think they can will in fact do so. The vote was to Major Taylor went on to global prominence as a cycle racer. In , the League of American Bicyclists — successor organisation to the League of American Wheelmen — righted the wrong.
WHEREAS, in commemoration of its return to Louisville, the site of the League of American Wheelmen convention, the League desires to acknowledge the wrong committed by that convention in approving a resolution offered by Colonel Watts to bar African-Americans from membership; and. In remembrance of his struggles to overcome racism and ignorance, and in recognition of his continuing contribution as a symbol of excellence in cycling and of overcoming adversity, we posthumously bestow on Major Taylor a League membership.
A Cathechism, St. Mansfield, New York, While livery stables may have voiced complaints, economic statistics paint a different picture. In the late Victorian period, businesses which sold and hired horses, and provided fodder and other services had never had it so good. The railway engine on the iron way, and the bicycle and tricycle on the macadamised roads, has put his nose out of joint. Ere long, no doubt, other inventions will come forward, as, indeed, electricity is already doing, to push the horse away altogether.
Meanwhile, the bicycle and tricycle are helping each other to do the work. In the last five years, , persons have been thus killed and 7, maimed or injured. The 2, accidents in London streets in occurred in this wise: by being run over by cabs, by omnibuses, by broughams and carriages, by light carts, by heavy carts, by wagons and drays, by vans, 10 by fire-engines, 79 by horses ridden and five by velocipedes. The Commissioner of Police reports, however, that special attention was paid during the year to measures tending to diminish the risk of pedestrians.
Constables have been placed at the most crowded crossings and special pains taken to obtain the names and addresses of offenders. In the case of cabs the number plate now affixed behind the cab generally suffices for this purpose; but in the case of light carts and wagons no such clue at present exists and they often entirely escape. Of the persons killed in the streets in , 11 were run over by cabs, 17 by omnibuses, two by carriages, 27 by light carts, 24 by heavy carts, 20 by wagons or drays, 19 by vans, one by a fire engine, two by horses ridden and one by a velocipede.
Theatrical managers say they have had the poorest season for many years, and that after patient and anxious search for the cause they have found it in the bicycle craze. They say that not only do young men and maidens but older men and women save up their money in order that with it they may buy wheels. This of itself is disastrous to the theatres, but worse remains to be told; for having bought the wheels they ride them in the evening instead of going to places of amusement.
They ride also on Saturday afternoons, and in Chicago a ride so universally on Sundays that the theatres, which formerly gave successful performances on that day, have discontinued them. The Sabbatarian might find encouragement in this fact were is not true that the churches are suffering almost as severely as the theatres from the same cause.
Business men are as loud in their complaints as the theatre managers. The watchmakers and jewellers say they are nearly ruined; that all pin money which the young people saved formerly with which to buy watches and jewelry now goes for bicycles; that parents, instead of presenting a boy with a watch on his twenty-first birthday, now give him a bicycle, and that all the family economy is now conducted with the object of equipping every boy and girl, as well as father and mother, with a wheel.
The tobacco manufacturer says he is the worst hit of all, since few riders care to smoke on the road — for which there is reason for profound gratitude — and the journals of the trade see it is a fact that the consumption of cigars is decreasing at the rate of a million a day, the total decrease since the craze became general averaging no less than ,, a year. Instead of sitting idle and smoking most of the day, hundreds of men now ride, and smoke only when they are resting. The tailor, the hatter, the bookseller, the shoemaker, the horse-dealer, and the riding-master, all tell similar tales of woe.
The taylor says that so many men go about half the time in cheap bicycle suits that they do not wear out their good clothes half as rapidly as formerly. The hatter says so many of them where they wear cheap caps, in which there is no profit to the maker, that their hats last them twice as long as heretofore.
The shoemaker says he is even worse off, for while they buy cheap shoes for the bicycle, they do not even wear these out, and they refrain from walking much in any kind of shoes whatever, so that his loss is almost total. The bookseller says people who are rushing about on wheels, days, nights, and Sundays, no longer read anything, and his business has become practically worthless.
As for the horse-dealer, stable-keeper, and riding-master, it is notorious what has happened to them. Who are the gainers? But there are other occupations than bicycle manufacturing which prosper. Butchers and grocers are said to be doing more business than ever because of the increased appetites and rejuvenated digestions which riding has caused, and the wayside tavern-keepers of the land have awaked from a sleep of half a century almost, to find prosperity once more rolling in at their doors.
But the greatest gainer of all is the American race. As a people the Americans have never taken sufficient outdoor exercise. We have been a nation of dyspeptics, simply because we did not take sufficient physical exercise to develop and strengthen our bodies. The bicycle is a wonderful; builder up and purger of the system.
It not only abolishes indigestion and dyspepsia, but rids the system of that curse of middle and old age, rheumatism, and thus adds enormously to the national good nature as well as to the sum of national happiness. As a social revolutionizer it has never had an equal. It has put the human race on wheels, and thus changed completely many of the most ordinary processes and methods of social life.
It is the great leveller, for not till all Americans got on bicycles was the great American principle, that every man is just as good as any other man, and generally a little better, fully realized. All are on equal terms, all are happier than ever before, and the sufferers in pocket from this universal fraternity and good will may make up their minds to the new order of things, for there will be no return to the old. The true philosopher under the new conditions was the watchmaker of the rural New York village who, when he found the demand for watches falling off, gave up dealing in them and went into the bicycle business.
Furmansky, In , writer Henry W. Even though this was a magazine article about the prospects for automobiles, Fischer felt he had to feature bicycles:. The ubiquity of the wheel is more and more apparent … the mail carrier uses the bicycle to accelerate his rounds, and the country doctor finds it cheaper and more convenient than a horse and buggy. A vast capital is employed in the manufacture of these steeds of steel … Good roads follow in their wake … The bicycle is a machine whose possibilities are still far from exhausted.
Farm horses consumed all the oats and hay that could be grown on about a quarter of the total crop area in America. Steven D. Levitt and journalist Stephen J. Cities around the world were able to take a deep breath — without holding their noses at last — and resume their march of progress. In fact, the use of horses remained common in cities for far longer than is generally accepted. We thought that when railways first came in that we should have nothing to do, but it has not turned out so … The horses have to work in connection with the railways; for every new railway you want fresh horses; fresh cab horses to begin with: I know one cab proprietor, for instance who used to keep 60 horses and now has XIV, Between and , the Great Western Railway expanded its horse fleet to 1, animals, an increase of 80 percent.
The Bishopsgate goods station, off Shoreditch High Street in London, employed 1, horses and horse-drawn vehicles. In , London had 80, horses, 21, of which were employed by railway companies. By — the peak year for the horse in Britain — the number of horses had more than doubled, to 3. After the use of horses started to decline but horse transport remained important.
Armies on both sides during the First World War relied heavily on horses. When British transport ships were sunk in the English Channel, the sea for miles around would be covered in hay. Twelve out of every 1, people in Great Britain owned some kind of private horse-drawn vehicle in This compared with four per 1, in It was not until that the number of car owners exceeded the number of persons who had owned horse-drawn carriages in Cities at the end of the 19th century must have had some wonderful roses.
Horses in British cities deposited 10 million tons of manure each year. Levitt, Stephen J. Dubner, HarperCollins Canada, The real killer of the horse was neither the motor car, nor the bicycle, but public transport. Omnibuses and trams — what Americans know as the streetcar — were first pulled by horses but when both went horseless, via motors and electricity respectively, the game was up for quadrupeds. In both British and American cities, the first suburbs grew up, ribbon-like, beside the tram and bus routes. Police horse census, Of the 80, horses in London, 20, were employed on omnibuses; 10, on tramways; 15, by cabs; by brewers; and 21, by railway companies.
The evolution of horse businesses to automobile businesses, via bicycle businesses, is featured in a light-hearted book about motoring etiquette from Donald McCullough joked:. The Automobile Magazine , May, In the s, London had 20,, horses each dropping 30 pounds of dung on the thoroughfares of London each day, close to tons a day. London Labour and the London Poor. Henry Mayhew, Charles Griffin and Co. Victorian England: The Horsedrawn society , F. Thompson, Bedford College, University of London, This traffic was apparently staged by the producer to give Market Street the appearance of a prosperous modern boulevard with many automobiles.
In fact, in the automobile was still something of a novelty in San Francisco. He also commissioned the original Spirit of Ecstasy mascot for the Rolls-Royce marque. Civil engineers retrofit existing roads, and design new ones, to withstand use by trucks. Even less-travelled suburban streets have to be built tough enough to cope with fire engines and heavy goods vehicles. Tests in by the American Association of State Highway Officials found that the damaging effect of axle weights on roads was approximately proportional to the fourth power of the axle load.
In short, the bigger the truck, the greater the likelihood of road damage. Nicholson, Palgrave Macmillan, The majority of bicycles, too, remain surprisingly similar to those developed in the s. There have been many technological advances in bicycles in the last 20 years, some of them developed jointly with automotive companies, a transfer of technologies in reverse.
In the s, aero bike designer Mike Burrows worked with Lotus Sport to create the monocoque composite-frame bicycle which Chris Boardman powered to gold at the Barcelona Olympics in The UCI has put the brakes on many potentially transformative bicycle technologies, including recumbent bicycles which were banned from competitions in Carl Benz in Ladenburg, nine miles from Mannheim. So, for instance, the city of Carlsruhe became Karlsruhe.
In this delightful memoir of short stories and essays, the author uses the rural wisdom he gained in his youth to explain time, forgiveness, and the crush of. Noté /5. Retrouvez Rural Wisdom: The times when life has really spun our wheels et des millions de livres en stock sur irelytuqypov.ml Achetez neuf ou.
Many other sources use Karl. The original prototype had long since been broken up for spares. Some historians believe Marcus had produced a hand-cart with an engine on it in In he produced a more mature automobile and most historians believe the vehicle was the one actually produced in Much of the evidence for the vehicle is circumstantial.
However, the downgrading of Marcus by the Nazis was very much real. The Nazis also removed statues of Marcus from Vienna and, it must be admitted, did a brilliant job of erasing him from history. The Bibliographic Institute and the publisher F. Brockhaus have been advised that in future Meyers Lexikon, and the Grosse Brockhaus are not to refer to Siegfried Marcus, but the two German engineers Gottlieb Daimler and Carl Benz as the creators of the modern automobile. Walther became agent of the first German velocipede manufacturer founded in Stuttgart in Generations of motoring historians have treated the book as though written by Benz himself.
The book was a rush job for a publisher. Benz was against fast cars and racing. Kleyer would go on to produce the Adler brand of automobile, which became the third best selling car brand in Germany. Max Rauck received order no. John C. The patent number — 37, — is said to be imprinted on the mind of every German school child. The Motorwagen was also granted patents in England , France What was new, he claimed, was attaching a motor. It seemed almost any engine would do. P, Paris, It was written as a critical response to the Berlin Auto Show of which lauded German inventions above those of France.
Illustrations also include exploded diagrams of a differential axle, patented by James Starley, and essential to the Benz Motorwagen and other early automobiles. He pushed through the provision of the autobahn system against the advice of his own Ministry of Transport which, while liking the idea of motorways, thought railways were more efficient. The ordinary citizen, once motorised, would have no need of bicycles. It appeared on Rover Safety adverts and is presumed to be a magazine quote.
The next biggest company in town was gun and precision tool maker Pratt and Whitney, which went on to become the famous aeronautics manufacturer. At the time Pratt and Witney made, among many other things, bicycle parts manufacturing machines. Columbia still makes bicycles but these are low-end models from the Far East and are sold into American supermarkets, in low numbers, by a furniture supply company. Because he was a great promoter, a larger-than-life character and never hid any lights under any bushels.
Epperson, McFarland, Big advertising! Bigger advertising! McClure, Frederick A. Stokes, Bicycling World , May 16th, Chauncey M. Depew, Haynes, To save face a dedication ceremony was held in October The Expert came home with me to instruct me. We chose the back yard, for the sake of privacy, and went to work. This was a boy, who was perched on a gate-post munching a hunk of maple sugar.
He was full of interest and comment. You will not regret it, if you live. Pope had joined the CTC in as an overseas member. In , Sturmey designed his own small car, the Voiturette. Sturmey, J. This was 11 days after James Archer filed a patent for a similar epicyclic gear on behalf of William Reilly, a Manchester engineer who had earlier signed a restrictive contract with a former employer, the manufacturer of a basic hub gear he had designed in Ironically, Sturmey continued to develop his bicycle gears at the same time as working on automotive inventions and, in , patented a much-improved five-speed hub gear Patent , It was never turned into a commercial product.
One of his initiatives to paint cyclists in a positive light was a magazine-organised campaign to raise funds for a lifeboat. The movement was discussed in the press, and the public spirit of the rapidly increasing army of wheelmen was commended in many quarters.
The journey was published in a lavishly illustrated book. It was situated between the Thames Embankment and the Strand in London. The hotel was partially demolished in The Strand facade remains, part of 80 The Strand. Eadie Manufacturing later made motorbikes, too.
A few days after the banquet it was revealed Du Cros had also been presented with the Order of Isabella la Catolica, an honour from the King of Spain. Patent No These air filled tyres were meant for horse-drawn carriages and, he predicted, for track locomotives, too. Du Cros Snr was a fine sportsman who came to cycling relatively late in life.
He pushed his six sons into cycle racing, becoming their manager and promotor. Mecredy, the cycle journalist who became a motoring journalist — he owned and edited a bicycle magazine and later a motoring magazine — and who was also a Dunlop shareholder and promoter. Wheels of fortune, a salute to pioneers , Arthur du Cros, Duncan, Paris, To afford increased facilities for the passage of wheeled vehicles — chiefly of the lighter class such for instance as velocipedes…over roadways and paths especially when these latter are of rough or uneven character as also to avoid the sinking of the wheels into the ground when travelling over boggy soil or land [and for when] immunity from vibration is desired to be secured, and at the same time ensuring increased speed in travelling…In carrying out my invention I employ a hollow tyre or tube made of India-rubber with cloth canvas, or other suitable material adapted to withstand the pressure of air introduced and contained within the tube tyre as hereunder mentioned said tube or type to contain air under pressure or otherwise and to be attached to the wheel or wheels in such a method as may be found most suitable.
Wheels of fortune, a salute to pioneers , Arthur Du Cros, Johnnie Dunlop tested the third set of tyres on his specially-constructed bicycle on February 28th, , between 10 and 11pm. There was an eclipse of the moon at 11pm. Fitzwater Wray, J. The company exported all over the world and was later absorbed by Dunlop. Ltd in and to Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Co. Sir Arthur Du Cros, author of a biography of the Dunlop company, was also prone to inexactitude and also somewhat naive, allowing himself to be drawn into the orbit of a succession of less than honest company promoters.
The riches he and his father had built were up were largely gone by the time of his death in Dunlop, on the other hand, invested some of his pneumatic tyre money — and money from his successful veterinary practice — in a merino sheep farm in Australia. This proved to be a wise investment. Welch … We did not know Mr. Welch, and we visited his house, but it was locked, bolted and barred. We put a man on to wait his return.
Dublin had four branches; Newcastle had two, Brussels had one, and there two in London, one in Knightsbridge, as well as the head office on Queen Victoria Street. Following the market collapse in the corporation folded in February In addition to its many uses in railroads and steam engines, military catalogues of the era show new designs using rubber for shoes and boots, blankets, hats, coats, pontoon boats, bayonet guards, tents, ground sheets, canteens, powder flasks, haversacks, and buttons.
Rubberized silk was used for military balloons. War also created a boom in reconstructive surgery using hard rubber teeth, nose pieces, and custom-molded prosthetics…. Above all else, it was flooded with replaceable rubber tires and inner tubes, mass-produced in the factories of Dunlop in Birmingham, England; Michelin in Clermont-Ferrand, France; and Pirelli in Milan, Italy.
The bicycle was cheap and popular. People suddenly had a means of freedom that had been unknown. This rubber came from several species of latex-bearing trees, the finest of which was Hevea, found scattered throughout the Amazonia and the Congo. Rubber barons inflicted great sufferings on people in these regions in order to produce the precious rubber. That equaled one life per every 5 kilograms. In , similar evils came to light on the Upper Amazon. They were castrated. They were tortured by fire by water, by being tied head-down, and by crucifixion. Their ears, fingers, arms, and legs were lopped off with machetes.
Managers used them for target practice and set them afire with kerosene on the Saturday before Easter as human fireworks for the Saturday of Glory. Whole tribal groups were exterminated if they failed to produce sufficient rubber. Hancock and Goodyear prescribed mixing lampblack into rubber in their patents dating from , but it was S.
Mote, chief chemist of the India Rubber, Gutta Percha and Telegraph Works in Silverton, England, who discovered, in , that the carbon black used as a pigment by ink makers had some reinforcement capabilities in rubber. In , the Diamond Rubber Co. Carbon black replaced zinc oxide as the reinforcing agent in rubber. A cabaret comedian crouched behind a cardboard cut-out of Bibendum and entertained the crowds with banter. The Michelin tyre drinks up obstacles.
Their rights should be protected against these life endangering pleasure jaunters. From Hyde-park-corner to Devonshire House the houses are confined to the north side, the Green-park forming, to that point, the southern side, which, for a considerable distance, is lined by foliage trees of some antiquity, and of great beauty. Meanwhile in the 15th century the population of England may have been around 2 and a half million. In our family we have a fall tradition of giving each child a day out enjoying the beautiful fall foliage and decorations and celebrations in the nearby town of Grafton Illinois and Hardin. To stand up straight with your shoulders back means building the ark that protects the world from the flood, guiding your people through the desert after they have escaped tyranny, making your way away from comfortable home and country, and speaking the prophetic word to those who ignore the widows and children. The sound rapidly amplifies to unbearable levels, sufficient to destroy the speakers, if it continues.
The Times , May 21st, The same story is told in all the cycle towns — at Coventry, Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Nottingham, and Redditch … Some really extraordinary stories are told at Coventry about the trade — that orders are absolutely refused … At all the factories overtime continues to be worked, and the artisans are sharing in the general prosperity of the industry … This morning the Birmingham Stock Exchange was rampant. The business of shares of cycle and cycle tube making companies opened with vigour, and during the morning the number of transactions was almost unprecedented … The excitement reached a point that is seldom witnessed, and where, in ordinary circumstances, there would be one buyer, to-day there were twenty.
The clue is in the name: Vehicle Excise Duty. GVED too much of a mouthful? Use car tax. Jeffreys despised him the feeling was mutual and later mocked the body. It attracted the hostility of Parliament. The general public and the road users were never interested in its activities. The Board was considered as an interloper by old established central government departments. The Treasury were opposed in principles to its financial foundations.
The Board made but few friends among the highway authorities it was created to help. Champion, E. Hitchings and M. Brice, Revenue Society, He was also a witness on the Royal commission on motor cars of , the Royal commission on London traffic, also of , and a great many others in following years. Bowley, He was transport minister from to Marples and his wife both cycle toured, mostly in France.
Monuments were erected in Cass City and Mackinaw City in his honor. Paternity is often disputed. Bicycles do. That was exactly a hundred years ago, in His company built my Ordinary. Pope lobbied successfully for the earliest macadam paving and became known as the Father of Good Roads. Thus, the motorists of today owe a debt of gratitude to Pope and to the bicycle. Such organisations were motoring-focussed after although many of the officials of state roads associations had also been active in the L.
The Dispatch , September 28th, Publishing Company, Boston, December, It was the most imperative and the first of our necessities. It is older than building and than wells …The Alps with a mule-track across them are less of a barrier than fifteen miles of forest or rough land separating one from that track. Coming south along it, Indians of various tribes reached the Dutch settlement at the southern end of the island. The English, of course, called it Broadway. In his report Gallatin proposed the building of a series of canals parallel to the Atlantic coast from New York City to South Carolina; a turnpike road from Maine to Georgia; and major river navigation projects.
He was years ahead of his time and many politicians believed his grandiose schemes to be works of folly. However, one of his projects did get built: the federally-funded National Pike, started in Work began in the town of Cumberland in Maryland, with navvies moving both eastward, toward Washington, D.
The road was surfaced with macadam, the broken stone road building system of Scottish engineer John Loudon McAdam. This is a road made for ever. The road reached Vandalia, Illinois in The plan was keep going all the way to St. Triumphant Democracy , Andrew Carnegie, It is believed to be the largest and most complete mastodon trackway ever found.
Sustrans in the UK and the Rails to Trails movement in the US have been repurposing derelict railway lines since the s. Roosevelt, cousin of Theodore Roosevelt, and one of the consuls of the League of American Wheelmen in he later went on to become an arch-motorist. San Francisco Call , 20 November 20th, The Long Island Motor Parkway, the first ten miles of which opened in , was decommissioned just thirty years later, and a section of it became a pleasure path for bicycles.
Originally conceived as an automobile race course, the privately-owned toll road on Long Island, near New York City, became an uninterrupted motors-only roadway for rich socialites. The road was put out of business by a wider free-to-use road built by Robert Moses, the New York urban planner who blacktopped the city with money from the s New Deal. The mile road was the idea of William Kissman Vanderbilt Jr. Vanderbilt Jr was an automobile race promoter who wanted to create a motor-only road for his Vanderbilt Cup races.
He financed the road with other backing from financiers and automobile companies. The Long Island Motor Parkway was costly to administer so the race course road was soon turned into a toll road for the wealthy, motoring to their estates on Long Island. At the opening of the road, Arthur R. And now the day of the automobile has come.
A highway is about to be constructed for its use, free from all grade crossings, dust and police surveillance, and a country opened up whose variegated charms are hard to equal in any part of the world. Speed limits are left behind, the Great White Way is before him, and with the throttle open he can go, go, go and keep going, 50, 60 or 90 miles an hour until Riverhead or Southampton is reached, in time for a scotch at the Meadow Club, a round of golf and a refreshing dip in the surf, and all before dinner is served, or the electric lights begin to twinkle.
A speed limit of 40 mph was later introduced, and widely ignored. The road was closed to racing following the death of two mechanics at a Vanderbilt Cup race in This was reduced to a dollar when, in , Moses built the nearby toll-free Northern State Parkway. The Lightfoot brothers had robbed and killed Nevell Norway, the great-grandfather of the famous novelist Nevill Shute. Fierce opposition halted the plans but Bristol City Council has not ruled out the plans.
Wells, It is planned that all signs will be replaced with s style motorway signage, and the modern motorway phones will be rehoused in the s style blue cabinets. The motorway will be patrolled by s style police cars. The designation will also mean that vehicles built after will not be permitted to use the road. Many people fell for the spoof. Unprofitable service facilities were to be withdrawn and thousands of acres of land made available for more productive uses. A popular event is the annual Tailback Weekend, featuring the cones and flashing yellow lights we remember so fondly from our childhood.
Paul Watters, head of roads and transport policy at the Automobile Association, was speaking in an online debate about car-free cities. Montague was married to C. When Scott was an MP, from to , Montague was editor in all but name. Scott was more of a cyclist than Montague. Scott] still rode his bicycle through the muddy and dangerous streets of Manchester, swaying between the tramlines, with white hair and whiskers floating in the breeze, equally oblivious of rain and traffic. The Iter Britanniarum is the British section of the Antonini Itinerarium, a register of the stations and distances along the roads of the Roman empire.
For these purposes permission shall be granted by this law to specified persons to drive wagons for the reasons stated. Newsome, November, If it is found that a smooth hard surface is the most convenient for a carriage to pass over, and that it is drawn with the smallest effort of animal strength, then it will be profitable to enquire by what means this smooth hard surface is obtained.
Clarkson was inspired to write his original polemic after sitting down to rest before the descent into Wadesmill. McAdam built some in the Cheviots, near Alston, to service the lead and other mineral extraction industries. This is the modern A It was once a grand entrance to Buckingham Palace. It was dismantled in and rebuilt in its present location in Like all roads in the 19th century, it faded in importance after the arrival of the first long-distance rail lines but its initial importance can be gleaned from the fact that the London suburb which once had the highest concentration of Irish immigrants was part of the London—Holyhead road.
Kilburn still has the highest Irish population of any London area. For decades it has shaped and been shaped by Irishness. The famous Catholic Church on Quex Road, the many Irish-run boarding houses, the patterns of employment, even the local shops and pubs have all informed and were informed by the Irish experience in north-west London. As a trunk road, the A5 is completely bypassed by the A The A41 is the Transport for London main route out of north-west London, and is far more suitable for lorries and coaches than the frequently narrow A5, which goes down to a total width of less than 9m including pavements at the pinch-point just south of the junction with Willesden Lane in Kilburn.