This edition includes Hatch's interesting appendices. Whichcot [sic] London, The corrected version in Characteristicks has been edited with material from the text by D. The Sociable Enthusiast Privately printed first version of The Moralists. A Letter Concerning Enthusiasm London, Recent edition by R.
The Moralists, a Philosophical Rhapsody London, Wolf above. Soliloquy: or, Advice to an Author London, John Toland, London, Turnbull, Three dissertations: one on the characters of Augustus, Horace and Agrippa London: : This material relating especially to Horace comes from Characteristics and from Shaftesbury's letters to Pierre Coste. Letters of the Earl of Shaftesbury, Author of the Characteristicks, collected into one volume Glasgow, Selected Manuscripts The main collection is in the Shaftesbury Papers, Public Record Office, London "A collection of documents, also entry-books of letters, written by, and correspondence of, the third Earl of Shaftesbury".
Other elements of Shaftesbury's correspondence are included in other collections and some of them have been published by T. Forster and R. Barrel below. Des Maizeaux's translation of parts of Inquiry Concerning Virtue. This material was originally the property of the unitarian Thomas Firmin. Later published in Des Maizeaux, ed. Amsterdam, Naples, Translation of Tabula Cebetis.
Manuscripts from the PRO are to be published and some of them are already edited in the Standard Edition above. Some of these manuscripts have been published or translated in other editions below. The philosopher and grammarian James Harris was Shaftesbury's nephew and had direct access to the papers of his uncle. According to the Hampshire Record Office catalogue, this collection includes: Letters in French to the 3rd Earl from Pierre Bayle; letters in French from Coste; letters in French from Jean Le Clerc ; letters from Benjamin Furly; letters to the 3rd Earl from various correspondents; letter-book with copies of letters from the 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury to various correspondents; other letters and documents; copies of letters from 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury to Mr Coste, prepared for publication; Chronology of Horace, according to the idea of a letter to Mr Coste, 15 Nov ; small notebooks of notes on The Satires and The Epistles; papers and notes collected for a Life of the 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury by James Harris, etc.
Published Manuscripts See Standard Edition above. Some material from unpublished papers was used by Thomas Birch in General Dictionary, vol. IX : , and had been provided by Shaftesbury's nephew, Jame Harris. Harris supplied John Upton with Shaftesbury's annotations on Epictetus. See J. Upton, ed. London: Thomae Woodward, This version is widely cited but unreliable and incomplete. See also F. Heinemann, "The philosopher of enthusiasm. With material hitherto unpublished", Revue Internationale de Philosophie, 6 : Many documents from the Shaftesbury Papers, relating to The Moralists, including drafts and letters, have been carefully edited by H.
Some unpublished letters have been edited by T. Rand above , and by R. Correspondence Lewiston: E. Mellen Press, Translation of Sensus Communis. It has long been ascribed to J. Van Effen, but there is new evidence that Pierre Coste was the translator. Casini and J.
Translation of Inquiry Concerning Virtue, or Merit. Translation of Characteristicks. Leroy, ed. English text and French translation. Jaffro, ed. Lories, ed. Translation of Soliloquy. Italian P. Casini, ed. Translation of The Moralists. Garin, ed. Translation of Letter Concerning Enthusiasm. German J. Seidel and G. Scheidhauer , Soliloquium von den wahren Eigenschaften eines Schriftstellers Magdebourg and Leipzig, Translation of Inquiry Concerning Virtue.
Translation of Judgment of Hercules.
Translation of Sensus Communis in F. Translation of Characteristicks, with Leibniz's remarks. Translation of parts of The Moralists. Translation into German of Shaftesbury's whole work. See above, Standard Edition.
Spanish D. Sampietro, ed. Arregui and Pablo Arnau, ed. Andreu, ed. Judit Aniot Budapest: Magyar Helikon, , [rev. Translation of Inquiry. Biographies R. The only modern biography.
Draws much material from the Shaftesbury Papers. Rand, ed. The same source was used by Thomas Birch in his General Dictionary, vol. IX : Criticism Collection F. Malherbe, ed. Philosophie et politesse Paris: Champion, It contains several papers from an international conference held at the University of Nantes France , September With contributions by: F.
Badelon, J. Larthomas, D. Lories, L. Jaffro, L. Klein, F. Malherbe, B. Saint-Girons, J. Vienne, J. Arregui, G. Stenger, E. Extensive treatment, but does not take the Shaftesbury Papers into consideration. Puts Shaftesbury in his cultural-political context. Rivers, Reason, Grace, and Sentiment. Pays close attention to Shaftesbury's impact on the Scottish Enlightenment. Crispini, L'etica dei moderni. Shaftesbury e le ragioni della virtu Roma: Donzelli, Works on Shaftesbury and the Cambridge Platonists E.
Starting point for modern studies. Cassirer, The Platonic Renaissance in England, trans.
We cannot study housing rents as the data are not available. This is not a terrible omission because the rental market in Spain is relatively small, as a result of many decades of heavy regulation. Greulich et al. First, it relates to the recent work on the effects of immigration on the price level and, in particular, on the prices of non-traded goods. This paper makes several contributions to our understanding of the effects of immigration on the housing market.
First, we look at an episode --the recent housing market boom in Spain--, which has not been studied in connection to immigration and that has some important features that make it interesting in a wider context. First, the magnitudes of the boom in both housing prices and residential construction activity have been very large relative to other countries.
Second, the housing boom coincided in time with an extraordinary immigration wave, quite unique both in terms of the size of the inflows and its rapid acceleration. Second, we focus not only on house prices, as is common in the US literature, but also analyze directly the effect on housing supply, by looking at new residential construction. Ottaviano and Peri , also study the relationship between immigration and housing prices, although that is not the main focus of those papers. Finally, we are able to use high-quality Local Registry data that allow us to measure regional immigrant concentration with precision at the yearly level, as opposed to having to rely on decennial Census data, as is typically the case in the US literature.
The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the spatial correlations approach and our instrument. Section 3 presents our data sources and descriptive statistics for the main variables used in the analysis. Section 4 contains our main results and sensitivity analysis, and Section 5 concludes. Figures and tables are located at the end of the paper.
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We estimate the impact of immigration on prices and quantities in regional housing markets. We consider two dependent variables: the annual change in the price per square meter of housing in euros and the flow of new construction units in a given year. Our main explanatory variable is the increase in the foreign-born population relative to total population. Specifically, our regression model for housing prices is:.
Because of the first-difference nature of our dependent variables the. In the labor market context, Aydemir and Borjas have argued that measuring immigrant concentration using the usual samples of Census data may lead to severe attenuation bias in the estimates. Arguably, our estimates based on Registry data do not suffer from this bias Farre, Gonzalez and Ortega, Vector Xit includes a set of controls for macroeconomic conditions, such as GDP growth and the change in the employment-population ratio at the province level.
In particular, we define seven groups of provinces, which we refer to as regions. This would be the case if immigrants concentrate heavily in the construction sector and larger inflows lead to lower wages in the sector. In sum, the sign and magnitude of the effect of immigration on housing prices is a priori ambiguous. We estimate a parallel specification to analyze the effects of immigration on the construction of new housing units:.
The right-hand side of the regression is identical to the regression model for the change in housing prices. We also estimate additional specifications where both quantities and migrant inflows are introduced without normalizing by population. If immigrants increase the demand for housing or increase supply by lowering costs , they would lead to an increase in residential construction.
However, if native outflows displace immigrants perfectly, or if immigrants tend to rent instead of buy, the demand effect would be neutralized. The sign of the bias is difficult to predict ex ante. Suppose that, for some reason, a province becomes more attractive. As a result, the demand for housing in that province would increase, leading to higher prices, and, simultaneously, more population native and foreign-born would flow into the region. However, the bias could very well go in the opposite direction. Since we are controlling for economic conditions in the province, it is reasonable to expect that immigrants will choose provinces where house prices are rising more slowly, among locations with similar changes in employment rates or GDP.
In order to overcome the potential endogeneity problem, we follow an instrumental variables approach. As in Saiz and Ottaviano and Peri , we instrument actual immigrant inflows into a province using historical information on immigrant networks defined by country of origin a la Card We expect current location decisions of immigrants to be influenced by the location decisions of earlier immigrants from the same country of origin.
If those previous immigrant settlements were established far back enough in time, their geographical distribution should be uncorrelated with the current province-level distribution of shocks to the demand for housing. This type of instrument has been widely used in the literature on the labor market effects of immigration. Specifically, we define the following predictor of the current stock of foreign-born population in province i and year t:. Thus, the term in parenthesis is the share of c-born individuals that lived in each province in the base year, which provides a measure of the size of that source country network in each province.
The only time-varying term in 3 is FBc,t, the stock of individuals originated from country c that live in Spain in year t. Hence, an inflow of, say, Polish immigrants into Spain in will lead to a predicted contemporaneous increase in the Polish population in each province that is proportional to the size of the Polish network in that province in the base year.
The two dependent variables, house prices and construction of new dwellings at the province and year level, are extracted from official data made publicly available by the Spanish Housing Ministry. The data include sales of both new and old dwellings. The data on quantities measure the number of new dwellings completed during a given year. We measure total working-age population and foreign-born population by province and year using the Local Population Registry provided by the National Statistical Institute. The high quality of the Registry data allows us to measure immigrant densities at the yearly level and by province with a high level of precision.
Since our population data refer to January 1st of each year, our main explanatory variable is in effect lagged by one year with respect to the housing market variables. For instance, the number of dwellings built during is estimated to be a function of the increase in the foreign-born population in the province between January 1st, and January 1st, As of now, GDP figures are only available up to See www. We obtained these data from the publicly available tables issued by the National Statistical Institute.
The crime variable measures the number of sentenced crimes in year , and we normalize it by population in the province. The weather variables are the annual number of sunny days, the number of days below freezing under 0 degrees Celsius , and the annual precipitation, all measured in year Finally, the instrument is constructed using Registry data to measure the national annual migration inflow by country of origin, and Census data to construct early migrant settlement patterns by province, also by source country. Table 1 contains the summary statistics for all variables used in the analysis.
The number of observations is , that is, 50 Spanish provinces times the 10 one-year intervals from to Panel 1 of Figure 1 shows that the average national price level was euros per square meter in , reaching almost 2, euros in They are very small in size and outliers regarding the foreign-born share.
By the end of , housing prices had started to fall. Between and , the total price increase at the province level ranged from to 2, euros with a median of 1, euros. Madrid and Barcelona the two most populated metropolitan areas were among the top 5 provinces in terms of price increases during the period.
Subject: Philosophy. See also F. The results of the instrumental measurements of the gamma radiation are listed. Fast shipping. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.
Panel 2 of Figure 1 illustrates the large construction boom in terms of the number of new dwellings built annually. Roughly , new dwellings were built nationally in Construction activity increased practically in every year until peaking at , units in , and started falling after that. There was also an increase in new dwellings per capita. In , 8 new dwellings were completed per 1, working-age individuals. The analogous figure was 20 in Residential construction activity also varied a lot across provinces see Figure 3. Roughly speaking, construction of new housing was most intense along the Mediterranean coast and around Madrid.
Between and , the number of new dwellings built by province ranged from about 12, to more than , In terms of absolute figures, construction was the largest in Barcelona and Madrid. However, once we normalize by initial population Figure 3 , the flow of new construction in these two provinces is less impressive below the 30th percentile.
The fall cannot be seen in the graph because it started in the last two quarters of the year. This may reflect space constraints in high-density urban areas. The unavailability of land provides greater incentives to reform older housing units rather than demolishing older units and replacing them with new buildings. In the quantities analysis equation 2 , we experiment with two dependent variables: the annual number of new dwellings by province, and the same variable normalized by population in the previous year. Table 1 shows that, on average, there were In absolute terms, 20, new housing units were built annually on average across all provinces and years.
In levels, the foreign-born population increased from less than , to 5 million, while the total working-age population increased from Immigrant concentration was highest along the Mediterranean coast, in the islands and around Madrid. Note that the cross-section of foreign-born shares at the end of the decade is very similar to the cross-sectional distribution of construction activity over the whole decade, as depicted in Figure 3.
Figure 5 provides a graphical illustration of the correlation between immigration inflows and the housing market variables. The horizontal axis in both panels is the change in the foreignborn share in the working-age population between and , by province. The values range from 4 to 22 percentage points. In the first panel, the vertical axis shows the total change in housing prices during the period.
We also include a linear fit. There is a clear positive association between immigration flows and housing prices. In the second Provinces with higher migration inflows were also characterized by higher residential construction activity, relative to initial population.
Results This section presents our estimates for the effects of immigration on housing markets, both regarding prices and quantities. Table 2 reports the first-stage regressions associated to our main specifications. The dependent variable is the change in the foreign-born population in a province over the total population in the previous year. The main explanatory variable is the instrument: the change in the predicted foreign-born population relative to the total initial population.
Column 2 adds macroeconomic controls GDP and employment-population ratios at the province level. Column 3 includes time-invariant amenities weather, crime and surface area. Column 4 includes 7 region dummies but excludes amenities and macro controls , and column 5 further includes.
Column 6 is comparable to column 1 but without normalizing by initial population. Across the different specifications, the estimated coefficient ranges from 0. For our preferred specification column 5 the coefficient is 0. Let us now turn to our estimates of the effects of immigration on housing prices. Our dependent variable is the change in the price of housing per square meter in euros. The main explanatory variable is the change in the foreign-born population relative to total population in the previous year see equation 1. Table 3 reports our estimates.
Column 1 reports the basic specification, including only year dummies as controls. Column 2 controls for changes in economic conditions at the province level. Column 3 also includes a vector of time-invariant amenities surface area, crime rates, and weather-related variables. Specification 4 includes regional dummies in an attempt to capture unobservable geographical differences in trends, due to, for example, changes in policies or regulations across different regional governments excluding the macro controls and amenities. This is our preferred specification, since it controls for time-invariant regional characteristics as in specification 4 as well as for differences in business cycles across regions.
All our regressions are populationweighted, and we report heteroskedasticity-robust standard errors. The top panel in table 3 displays the OLS estimates. The estimated coefficient for our main explanatory variable is However, there is substantial variation across specifications and, in particular, the estimated coefficient is not significantly different from zero in our preferred specification column 5.
Let us now turn to the IV estimates, displayed in the bottom panel of Table 3.
The point estimate in column 1 is now Column 4 controls for changes in economic conditions and a vector of time-invariant amenities. The point estimate is Among the set of amenities, we find that the number of cold days and the crime rate have negative and significant coefficients. The point estimate in our preferred specification column 5 is a highly significant That is, an inflow of immigrants equal to one percent of the population leads to an increase in the price of housing of roughly 45 euros.
This amounts to one third of the average annual increase in housing prices across provinces and years euros, see table 1. That is, controlling for economic conditions, immigrants are attracted to provinces with relatively low increases in housing prices. As a result, there is a spuriously low correlation between immigration and housing price growth.
When we instrument for immigration flows using established ethnic networks, we find that the causal effect of immigration into a region is to increase the demand, and thus, the price of housing. Our estimates for the effect of immigration on house prices are quite close in magnitude to those found in previous studies for the US. He finds effects on rents that are smaller in size but more precisely estimated. Interestingly, both of these studies also find that OLS estimates are biased downwards. We now turn to the effects of immigration on the flow of new residential construction. The right-hand side of the regression is identical to that of the price regressions.
These results are presented in Table 4. We also report the results from an additional specification in Table 5 , where we do not normalize immigration or housing flows by population size. We expect the estimated effects of immigration to be very similar in the two alternative models. The top panels of Tables 4 and 5 present our OLS estimates. In the basic specification column 1 the point estimates associated to the immigration variable are 0.
In addition to being relatively similar, the point estimates are highly significant in both cases. Turning to our preferred specification column 5 , the OLS estimated coefficients are 0. Let us now turn to the IV estimates, presented in the bottom panel.