One of his many roles at the University of New Mexico has been as the director of the Vargas Project, an effort to chronicle the life of pioneer Don Diego de Vargas. Kessell's work on this project and his access to journals has resulted in numerous books about Vargas. Steere praised By Force of Arms for offering "excellent illustrations, maps, footnotes, a glossary, a bibliography, and an index," adding that the "Vargas project staff should be complimented for this.
Other books focus on how groups of people influenced the early years in regional history.
Friars, Soldiers, and Reformers: Hispanic Arizona and the Sonora Mission Frontier, , for example, considers the role played by missionaries and other religious-minded pioneers in Arizona. Reviewing the books for the Journal of San Diego History Web site, Cynthia Radding Murrieta called the book "a masterpiece of the historian's craft" and a "major contribution to the historiography of Northwest Mexico and the U.
Southwest," adding that it is "both a beautiful story and a model of historical research.
South of the Olmec culture, the great Mexican city of Teotihuacan sent its merchants to Texas by a. Showing best matches Show all copies. In addition, a Polish professor found skulls and skeletons that he judged to be African in terms of their origin. Rosenbaum, Robert J. Austin: W.
A Publishers Weekly reviewer commended Kessell for his handling of more than years of history, adding, "In an era of multiculturalism. Kessell once told CA: "After ten years as a freelance historical researcher, or contract historian, I do not recommend it as a career. It has been precarious.
Returning to Tubac, Anza proceeded south to Mexico City.
The results of that trip were commendation for making California a viable colony and receipt of another promotion, this time to the governorship of the province of New Mexico in In the meantime, overhaul of the administration of New Spain's northwest had been completed. A Comandancia General of the Provincias Internas Interior Provinces came into being, aimed primarily at military defense. During the next decade, Anza would prove to be a major figure in development and execution of frontier defensive strategies in the Comandancia. Among Governor Anza's first important undertakings in New Mexico was a punitive expedition against Comanche Indians who occupied the eastern portion of the province, but ranged widely across the southern Great Plains.
Since about , when aggressive mounted warriors known as Comanches in the Ute Indian language first were noted in New Mexico, there had been periodic outbreaks of fierce hostilities between them and Apaches, Pueblos, and Hispanic settlers.
It was not long before even Apaches were seeking Spanish aid against these newcomers from the Intermountain West. After acquiring horses and with access to firearms from French traders, Comanche bands became a fearsome force on the eastern edge of the Spanish province. They were described by Pedro de Rivera in as "always on the move and in battle array. Because of Comanche pressure, by the s, Jicarilla Apaches, traditionally trading partners of Taos Pueblo, had been pushed southward and now sought relations with Pecos Pueblo instead.
That pueblo was itself attacked directly by Comanches in , as was the Hispanic community of Galisteo. Although occasionally marred by raids and retaliation, those few years were a time of general peace. Punitive Spanish actions and Comanche reprisals succeeded each other like clockwork.
It was characterized by wild swings between peace and war.
Mendinueta's term was cumulatively the most violent during the century. It was at the conclusion of those 11 years and under those conditions that Juan Bautista de Anza arrived in New Mexico. In accordance with policies hammered out during earlier meetings with Teodoro de Croix, the first comandante general, Anza sought first to re-establish fear of Spanish arms among Comanches and then to seek alliance with them against Lipan and Gila Apaches, who had become a plague, in Spanish eyes, in Sonora, Chihuahua, and Texas.
Accordingly, in Anza mounted a massive military campaign against Comanches in what is now southeastern Colorado. They were joined by more than Ute and Jicarilla Apache warriors. Traveling north by an unexpected route and at an unexpected time, they surprised an encampment of Comanches near modern Pueblo, Colorado.
An ensuing running fight left 18 Comanche men dead and many women and children in captivity and earned Anza's Indian allies an incredible haul of spoils. Seeking quick revenge, the well-known and much feared Comanche leader Cuerno Verde unwisely attacked Anza's huge force with only about 50 men. The results were predictable.
Spain in the Southwest: A Narrative History of Colonial New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, and California [John L. Kessell] on irelytuqypov.ml *FREE* shipping on. Editorial Reviews. From Publishers Weekly. It's hard to beat the early history of the American Spain in the Southwest: A Narrative History of Colonial New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, and California - Kindle edition by John L. Kessell. the Spanish colonies that became the states of New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, and California.
Cuerno Verde and several other Comanche leaders were killed, as were more than a dozen lesser known warriors. Anza returned to New Mexico in triumph, showing off the distinctive "green horn" headdress of the defeated Comanche leader.
The following year, and for at least one more after that, Comanche bands throughout the southern Plains were ravaged by European-introduced smallpox. While this work synthesizes the available scholarship in the field, the author does not shy away from challenging historical interpretations, whether new or old.
This case has long been used as a prime example of Spanish cruelty and continues to be a source of contention within New Mexico today. While one wishes that Kessell would have spent more time justifying his doubts, he certainly raises the prospect for additional research into this episode. Aside from this controversial stance and the occasional confusion created by populating the narrative with so many names and personalities, Spain in the Southwest is an immensely enjoyable read.
Whether one is new to the history of the Spanish Borderlands or a seasoned veteran, there is much to mine from a narrative that chronicles the colonial histories of New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, and California without isolating them from each other or the larger Spanish world.
Kessell does a remarkable job of reminding his readers that the northern frontier of New Spain was not defined along the current border between Mexico and the United States. In fact, the northern states of present-day Mexico clearly had a role in defining the nature and terms of the Hispanic colonization of the American Southwest.
Moreover, one is constantly reminded that even on the most remote frontiers, relations between Spain and other world powers had significant ramifications for everyone, whether European or Native American.