Many people expected him to lose. Nevertheless, Octavian had at his command a contingent of ships and 80, soldiers. However, Octavian had one advantage Antony did not. Octavian had leading his forces the renowned admiral and strategist Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. Finally, at the close of winter 31 B. The attack came as a shock to both Antony and Cleopatra.
They had expected the attack to come in the north, and they had planned accordingly. Rather, it had come in the south, and they now were forced to make adjustments. Antony was caught off guard once more when Octavian landed with his forces in the city of Panorma. Antony must have sensed that the time for the final battle was approaching, so he set off for the city of Actium, where the bulk of his forces were based.
Meanwhile, Octavian arrived at the southern half of the promontory setting up camp on one side of it, while he positioned his forces around his camp and outside of the Gulf of Ambracia. Antony immediately began encountering problems. Antony had also camped in an area ripe with mosquitoes, and many of his soldiers got very sick with malaria.
It was around this time too, that Agrippa, after capturing the strongholds of Leucas, Patrae, and Corinth, arrived with his fleet. Antony would now have to fight if he wanted to break out of the gulf.
Antony now had only two options. He could either attempt to retreat with his forces on land, and hope to draw Octavian to him, or he could use his fleet to break out of the gulf. On the night of September 1, 31 B. On the morning of September 2, 31 B. One group situated on the left flank was commanded by Sosius, the center flank was commanded by Antony himself, and the right flank was commanded by Gellius Publicola. Behind them was trailing Cleopatra with sixty ships laden with treasure.
Octavian himself commanded the right flank, while Lurius commanded the center, and Agrippa the left flank. With the two opposing forces formed up, the two fleets faced each other in an intense stand off that lasted for three hours. Finally, the wind shifted, and Antony ordered a general advance.
Agrippa seeing this, ordered all forces to backwater. He wanted Antony to expose his forces more. And Antony took the bait. Finally, the two sides clashed.
The years B. The civil war between Antony and Octavian seemed assured of dwarfing even the massive conflict between Caesar and his Republican opponents. The quinqueremes had the advantage of height from which to shoot or attack from and the advantage of the plates which protected them from ramming. Mark Antony finally agreed to take Cleopatra's advice and fight the naval battle and to simultaneously take his General's advice and send Cleopatra home. Two of the obelisks are still in nearby Piazza della Minerva and Piazza del Pantheon; four other obelisks have travelled a bit: two are still in Rome in Villa Celimontana and near the former Villa Peretti , while of the other two one is in Florence and the other in Urbino. Antony immediately began encountering problems.
The smaller crafts repeatedly rammed into the larger ships. As the battle between the two fleets raged on, a gap opened between them. This gap was just what Cleopatra had been waiting for.
Topics roman, rome, romans, senate, hannibal, consul, caesar, army, scipio, king, roman army, roman fleet, appius claudius, winter quarters. A History Of Rome To The Battle Of Actium [Evelyn Shirley Shuckburgh] on irelytuqypov.ml *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This is a reproduction of a book.
When she saw the gap she ordered her ships to hoist sail and pass through it. Her ships did this, and then they sailed off, bound for home. Both sides were shocked. It was, after all, an audacious feat to attempt in the middle of a battle. His orders were to have the rest of the fleet follow him back to Egypt. Then he too departed after Cleopatra, leaving his fleet and much of his army behind. No true Roman general would ever abandon his forces. But Antony had done just that.
From that moment on, chaos ensued. Octavian and Agrippa continued to set ships ablaze. Many sailors jumped ship and swam to shore, where they dispersed into the the countryside. Those few ships that remained returned to the Gulf of Ambracia. Octavian and Agrippa merely trapped them inside the gulf again, totally unconcerned. The enemy fleet had been vanquished. They no longer felt any loyalty towards him. Within a week, almost all the soldiers defected to Octavian. The battle for control of Rome was over. Octavian was the clear victor. Antony and Cleopatra fled back to Alexandria where they lived a life of numbing pleasure and debauchery.
But Octavian made his way to Egypt in 30 B. Upon hearing of his arrival in Egypt, Antony did the honorable thing and took his own life on the 1st of August 30 B.
Cleopatra was captured by Octavian, but she did not want to give him the satisfaction of displaying her as a trophy. So she too took her own life on the 10th of August.
Defections from all quarters of Antony's support, to Octavian's side, were occurring in massive numbers. Agrippa's blockade against Antony tightened, and disease swept through Antony's camp. Common legionaries, commanders and Senators switched sides as the inevitable victory for Octavian seemed only a matter of time. By the time the calendar approached September of 31 BC, only 3 Consular magistrates remained with Antony.
On the 2nd September 31 BC, Antony desperately attempted a breakout with his fleet to escape the blockade and regroup in Egypt. With his large ships, he sailed out of the gulf of Actium and engaged Agrippa's prepared navy. Though Antony's under-matched forces fought valiantly, they were simply unable to counter Agrippa's vast superiority. Under the watchful eye of both armies on land, and as the tide turned against Antony, Cleopatra seized an opportunity to flee the battle with her own ships that were held in reserve.
As a gap opened in Agrippa's blockade, she funneled through, and was soon closely followed by Antony's command ships. The commanders of Antony's land forces, which were supposed to follow him to Asia, promptly surrendered without a fight.
Octavian stood as the master of the Roman world, east and west, and to commemorate his victory, he founded the city of Nicopolis City of Victory on the site. All was not over just yet, however. Trouble with Octavian's veterans forced him to abandon pursuit of his eastern rival, and final victory would be delayed for a year. Octavian also wisely decided to put an end to any chance for Antony to regain strength from eastern kings by marching through the eastern provinces rather than sail directly to Egypt.
Meanwhile, Antony attempted to secure an army in Cyrene from L.
Pinarius Scarpus, but Scarpus refused and offered loyalty to Octavian. Trapped in Egypt with what remained of his former army, Antony and Cleopatra bided their time awaiting Octavian's arrival. As Octavian marched through Asia, Syria and Judaea establishing his authority, Scarpus sailed to Cyrenaica and moved east towards Egypt to pinch Antony between a two-pronged front.