More a myth than a religious satire, it vividly survives James Hogg's not entirely satisfactory manner of recounting it. Consider this: there may be a Gil-Martin near you. Christopher Howse. Here, in an age of doubt, aesthetics and Darwinism, these mysterious verses, drawn from 11th-century Persian, stand as little examples of how to celebrate life even as it slips away. If only one knew what he was on about.
Put six Nietzscheans in a room and it ought to be a bloodbath; except, since they're all nancies who fancy themselves as Supermen, there wouldn't be one. Nietzsche was brave and mad enough to kill God: but look what happened to him. His acolytes are, largely, less brave. Andrew McKie. An individual based on its French author lounges about his luxurious home indulging in pursuits such as embedding gemstones in the shell of a tortoise until, loaded down, it expires.
Dripping with Baudelairean ennui and not a little dull itself , A Rebours was a bible for the Symbolists, Oscar Wilde and alienated creative types everywhere. Serena Davies. It's persuasive, especially if you read it, as many do, chillum in hand, in the Himalayas. Although, thinking about it now, profundities such as "the secret of the river is there is no time" don't make much sense out of context. The Prophet is a beautifully phrased exercise in pointing out the obvious but Sixties hippy kids loved it. Martin Chilton. A bible to the generation who read it on publication, its influence continues thanks to a Virago reprint.
Sarah Crompton. Travelling through the Middle East and Asia in the s, Byron provides detailed descriptions of Islamic architecture, with pungent asides: "The Arabs hate the French more than they hate us. Having more reason to do so, they are more polite; in other words, they have learnt not to try it on, when they meet a European.
This makes Damascus a pleasant city from the visitor's point of view. Strange but true: George W Bush read it on holiday when he was President. Dominic Sandbrook. Tim Martin. From his reassuring first sentence — "You know more than you think you do" — he revolutionised the way parents thought about their children, asserting the right to cuddle, comfort and follow your instincts.
He also tells you how to deal with croup. It ends with the words "I love you" scribbled in the margins of the imaginary journal that forms the substance of the novel. Ill at ease with others? You will if you read this. Creepy bit of mind-mechanics by the indifferent sci-fi novelist who founded Scientology. Complicated teen Holden Caulfield at large in the big city, working out his family and getting drunk. You've probably read it, be honest. William Blake said that if we could cleanse the "doors of perception" we would perceive "the infinite".
Huxley thought mescalin was the way to do so. In this essay, he pops a pill, goes on about "not-self" and "suchness", and decides love is the ultimate truth. He also took LSD when dying, but hardly stuffed it down the way his fans did. Jim Morrison was one: he named the Doors after Huxley's book, gobbled mouthfuls of acid and was dead by O is a beautiful woman who submits to the sadistic whims of various men after she is kidnapped and taken to a chateau to be blindfolded, whipped, branded and pierced.
It ends with an odd sense of triumph, O wearing nothing but a mask before a group of strangers. Bewildering, creepy and joyless, it's a guaranteed detumescent. Toby Clements. Modesty was not one of his virtues; nor, sadly, was literary ability. It is the result of seven years of road-trips across America during the s. Initially it celebrates the alternative lifestyle, although by the end it is coloured by disappointment.
In November , A long-lost letter sent to Keroac from writer Neal Cassady was found after more than half a century.
After reading it Kerouac ripped up an early draft of On the Road and spent three weeks re-writing the novel to mimic its stream of consciousness style. The note - an page rambling stream of consciousness written by fellow writer Neal Cassady to his friend in - had been considered one of the greatest losses in literary history. An ineradicable elegy for a vanished society, and, despite its risorgimento setting, still the best psychological and botanical guidebook to parts of southern Italy.
Made it possible for the middle classes to embrace the Mediterranean. On February 3 , Harper announced that Go Set a Watchman, a novel the Pulitzer Prize-winning author completed in the Fifties and put aside, will be released July Rediscovered last autumn, Go Set a Watchman is essentially a sequel to To Kill a Mockingbird, although it was finished earlier.
The page book will be Lee's second, and the first new work in more than 50 years. Literary history would be entirely different if Heller had followed his original intention and called it Catch it was changed to avoid confusion with a Leon Uris book. Through the conflict between Nurse Ratched and McMurphy, the novel explores the theme of how individuals are crushed and of rebellion against conformity. Unforgettable stuff, after which mazes and mirrors will never be the same again. Often beloved of the kind of person who agrees with its author that "there is a kind of lazy pleasure in useless and out-of-the-way erudition", and none the worse for that.
In November , he returned to the U. After assorted odd jobs, he gained white-collar employment in as a personal assistant to historian Carter G. As the work demands limited his time for writing, Hughes quit the position to work as a busboy at the Wardman Park Hotel. Hughes's earlier work had been published in magazines and was about to be collected into his first book of poetry when he encountered poet Vachel Lindsay , with whom he shared some poems.
Impressed, Lindsay publicized his discovery of a new black poet. The following year, Hughes enrolled in Lincoln University , a historically black university in Chester County, Pennsylvania. He joined the Omega Psi Phi fraternity. After Hughes earned a B. Except for travels to the Soviet Union and parts of the Caribbean , he lived in Harlem as his primary home for the remainder of his life. During the s, he became a resident of Westfield, New Jersey for a time, sponsored by his patron Charlotte Osgood Mason. Some academics and biographers believe that Hughes was homosexual and included homosexual codes in many of his poems, as did Walt Whitman , whom Hughes said influenced his poetry.
Hughes's story "Blessed Assurance" deals with a father's anger over his son's effeminacy and "queerness". Arnold Rampersad , the primary biographer of Hughes, determined that Hughes exhibited a preference for African-American men in his work and life. Hughes did, however, show a respect and love for his fellow black man and woman. Other scholars argue for his homosexuality: his love of black men is evidenced in a number of reported unpublished poems to an alleged black male lover. On May 22, , Hughes died in the Stuyvesant Polyclinic in New York City at the age of 65 from complications after abdominal surgery related to prostate cancer.
His ashes are interred beneath a floor medallion in the middle of the foyer in the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in Harlem. The title is taken from his poem " The Negro Speaks of Rivers ". Within the center of the cosmogram is the line: "My soul has grown deep like the rivers".
My soul has grown deep like the rivers.
I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young. I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep. I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it. Except for McKay, they worked together also to create the short-lived magazine Fire!! Devoted to Younger Negro Artists. Hughes and his contemporaries had different goals and aspirations than the black middle class. Hughes and his fellows tried to depict the "low-life" in their art, that is, the real lives of blacks in the lower social-economic strata. They criticized the divisions and prejudices within the black community based on skin color.
The younger Negro artists who create now intend to express our individual dark-skinned selves without fear or shame. If white people are pleased we are glad. If they are not, it doesn't matter. We know we are beautiful. And ugly, too. The tom-tom cries, and the tom-tom laughs. If colored people are pleased we are glad. If they are not, their displeasure doesn't matter either. We build our temples for tomorrow, strong as we know how, and we stand on top of the mountain free within ourselves. His poetry and fiction portrayed the lives of the working-class blacks in America, lives he portrayed as full of struggle, joy, laughter, and music.
Permeating his work is pride in the African-American identity and its diverse culture. He confronted racial stereotypes, protested social conditions, and expanded African America's image of itself; a "people's poet" who sought to reeducate both audience and artist by lifting the theory of the black aesthetic into reality. The night is beautiful, So the faces of my people. The stars are beautiful, So the eyes of my people Beautiful, also, is the sun. Beautiful, also, are the souls of my people. Hughes stressed a racial consciousness and cultural nationalism devoid of self-hate.
His thought united people of African descent and Africa across the globe to encourage pride in their diverse black folk culture and black aesthetic. Hughes was one of the few prominent black writers to champion racial consciousness as a source of inspiration for black artists. A radical black self-examination was emphasized in the face of European colonialism. At a time before widespread arts grants, Hughes gained the support of private patrons and he was supported for two years prior to publishing this novel.
In , Hughes and Ellen Winter wrote a pageant to Caroline Decker in an attempt to celebrate her work with the striking coal miners of the Harlan County War , but it was never performed. It was judged to be a "long, artificial propaganda vehicle too complicated and too cumbersome to be performed. Maxim Lieber became his literary agent, —45 and — Chambers and Lieber worked in the underground together around — Hughes' first collection of short stories was published in with The Ways of White Folks.
He finished the book at a Carmel, California cottage provided for a year by Noel Sullivan, another patron. Overall, they are marked by a general pessimism about race relations, as well as a sardonic realism. In , Hughes received a Guggenheim Fellowship. The same year that Hughes established his theatre troupe in Los Angeles, he realized an ambition related to films by co-writing the screenplay for Way Down South.
In Chicago, Hughes founded The Skyloft Players in , which sought to nurture black playwrights and offer theatre "from the black perspective.
the Deeper Side of a Wolf, Poetry by Ben Wilson Book 3: Ben Wilson: Books - irelytuqypov.ml This is my personal collection of poetry I wrote over years of time and now pass the enjoyment I get from reading them to you and everyone else who is.
The column ran for twenty years. In , Hughes began publishing stories about a character he called Jesse B. Semple, often referred to and spelled "Simple", the everyday black man in Harlem who offered musings on topical issues of the day. In , he spent three months at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools as a visiting lecturer.
He wrote novels, short stories, plays, poetry, operas, essays, and works for children. With the encouragement of his best friend and writer, Arna Bontemps , and patron and friend, Carl Van Vechten , he wrote two volumes of autobiography, The Big Sea and I Wonder as I Wander , as well as translating several works of literature into English. From the mids to the mids, Hughes' popularity among the younger generation of black writers varied even as his reputation increased worldwide.
With the gradual advance toward racial integration , many black writers considered his writings of black pride and its corresponding subject matter out of date. They considered him a racial chauvinist. Hughes wanted young black writers to be objective about their race, but not to scorn it or flee it. Hughes's work Panther and the Lash , posthumously published in , was intended to show solidarity with these writers, but with more skill and devoid of the most virulent anger and racial chauvinism some showed toward whites.
He often helped writers by offering advice and introducing them to other influential persons in the literature and publishing communities. This latter group, including Alice Walker , whom Hughes discovered, looked upon Hughes as a hero and an example to be emulated within their own work. One of these young black writers Loften Mitchell observed of Hughes:. Langston set a tone, a standard of brotherhood and friendship and cooperation, for all of us to follow. You never got from him, 'I am the Negro writer,' but only 'I am a Negro writer. Hughes, like many black writers and artists of his time, was drawn to the promise of Communism as an alternative to a segregated America.
Many of his lesser-known political writings have been collected in two volumes published by the University of Missouri Press and reflect his attraction to Communism. An example is the poem "A New Song". In , Hughes became part of a group of black people who went to the Soviet Union to make a film depicting the plight of African Americans in the United States. The film was never made, but Hughes was given the opportunity to travel extensively through the Soviet Union and to the Soviet-controlled regions in Central Asia, the latter parts usually closed to Westerners.
The only emperor is the emperor of ice-cream. Whole families shopping at night! With a huge multi-arts school competition on the horizon, will the pressure tear the students of Keaton School of the Arts apart or bring them closer? The foreword stated that they wanted "less of a carnival, more like a checklist. He endured the pain for several days with the help of opium before he died surrounded by family on Friday, March He was too restless to take a carriage and walked 90 minutes to meet her at her house. London: Continuum, , pp.
In Turkmenistan , Hughes met and befriended the Hungarian author Arthur Koestler , then a Communist who was given permission to travel there. As later noted in Koestler's autobiography, Hughes, together with some forty other Black Americans, had originally been invited to the Soviet Union to produce a Soviet film on "Negro Life",  but the Soviets dropped the film idea because of their success in getting the US to recognize the Soviet Union and establish an embassy in Moscow.
This entailed a toning down of Soviet propaganda on racial segregation in America. Hughes and his fellow Blacks were not informed of the reasons for the cancelling, but he and Koestler worked it out for themselves. Hughes also managed to travel to China and Japan before returning to the States. Hughes's poetry was frequently published in the CPUSA newspaper and he was involved in initiatives supported by Communist organizations, such as the drive to free the Scottsboro Boys.
Partly as a show of support for the Republican faction during the Spanish Civil War , in Hughes traveled to Spain  as a correspondent for the Baltimore Afro-American and other various African-American newspapers. He was more of a sympathizer than an active participant. He signed a statement supporting Joseph Stalin 's purges and joined the American Peace Mobilization in working to keep the U. Hughes initially did not favor black American involvement in the war because of the persistence of discriminatory U.
Jim Crow laws and racial segregation and disfranchisement throughout the South. He came to support the war effort and black American participation after deciding that war service would aid their struggle for civil rights at home. They provided a foundation for nontheistic participation in social struggle. Hughes was accused of being a Communist by many on the political right, but he always denied it. When asked why he never joined the Communist Party, he wrote, "it was based on strict discipline and the acceptance of directives that I, as a writer, did not wish to accept.
He stated, "I never read the theoretical books of socialism or communism or the Democratic or Republican parties for that matter, and so my interest in whatever may be considered political has been non-theoretical, non-sectarian, and largely emotional and born out of my own need to find some way of thinking about this whole problem of myself. He moved away from overtly political poems and towards more lyric subjects. When selecting his poetry for his Selected Poems he excluded all his radical socialist verse from the s.
Hughes' life has been portrayed in film and stage productions since the late 20th century. Spike Lee 's film Get on the Bus , included a black gay character, played by Isaiah Washington , who invokes the name of Hughes and punches a homophobic character, saying: "This is for James Baldwin and Langston Hughes. Hughes' Ask Your Mama: 12 Moods for Jazz , written in , was performed for the first time in March with specially composed music by Laura Karpman at Carnegie Hall , at the Honor festival curated by Jessye Norman in celebration of the African-American cultural legacy.
The novel Harlem Mosaics by Whit Frazier depicts the friendship between Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston, and tells the story of how their friendship fell apart during their collaboration on the play Mule Bone. The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University holds the Langston Hughes papers — and the Langston Hughes collection — containing letters, manuscripts, personal items, photographs, clippings, artworks, and objects that document the life of Hughes.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Langston Hughes disambiguation. Poetry portal African American portal Children's literature portal. New York Times. Retrieved August 9, Realism in the Novels of the Harlem Renaissance. The Big Sea. Retrieved December 15, African-Native American Scholars. Retrieved July 30, Nobody ever cried in my grandmother's stories. They worked, schemed, or fought.
But no crying. Rampersad, vol.
Wirth Collection Emory University. Central High. Retrieved February 1, — via Hathi Trust. Chesnutt , Black Latinist". Retrieved February 1, Retrieved June 20, The Big Sea , pp. Quote: "And the father, Hughes said, 'hated Negroes.
I think he hated himself, too, for being a Negro. He disliked all of his family because they were Negroes. Hughes never publicly identified "F. Nine years older than Hughes, Smith influenced the poet to go to sea.
Born in Jamaica in , Smith spent most of his life as a ship steward and political activist at sea—and later in New York as a resident of Harlem.