Spanish Colonial or Adobe Architecture of California: 1800-1850

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The Monterey Style was born in 19th century California, but its popularity expanded throughout a growing 20th century United States. The simple yet regal design became popular with the less-than-rich but well-to-do class of Americans. Distinct characteristics are associated with the house style. Twentieth century Monterey Revival is often more Spanish-flavored in the early years — and more Colonial-inspired in the later years — With the sleek appearance of a modern machine, Art Moderne or, Streamline Moderne, houses expressed the spirit of a technological age.

The terms are often used to describe a variation on Art Deco architecture. As in Art Deco, Art Moderne buildings emphasize simple geometric forms. There are, however, important differences.

The sleek Art Moderne style originated in the Bauhaus movement, which began in Germany. Bauhaus architects wanted to use the principles of classical architecture in their purest form, designing simple, useful structures without ornamentation or excess. Building shapes were based on curves, triangles, and cones. Bauhaus ideas spread worldwide and led to the International Style in the United States.

Art Moderne art, architecture, and fashion became popular just as the more highly decorative Art Deco style was falling out of favor. Many products produced during the s, from architecture to jewelry to kitchen appliances, expressed the new Art Moderne ideals. Art Moderne truly reflected the spirit of the early and mid century. Expressing excitement over technological advancements, high speed transportation, and innovative new construction techniques, Art Modern design was highlighted at the World's Fair in Chicago.

For homeowners, Art Moderne homes were also practical because these simple dwellings were so easy and economical to build. But the Art Moderne or Streamline Moderne style was also favored for chic homes of the very wealthy. For those of more humble means, there was the Art Moderne Bungalow. Although some argue that these houses have no "style" whatsoever, this simple design was appropriate for a country recovering from a Great Depression and anticipating World War II.

Sometimes called a Minimal Modern style, these cottage homes are more "squat" than the steep-roofed Tudor or Tudor Cottage that came before it, and more "cramped" than the breezy, open-air Ranch Style that came after. The Minimal Traditional house style expresses a modern tradition with minimal decoration.

One-story Ranch Style homes are so simple, some critics say they have no style. But there's more than meets the eye to the classic suburban Ranch Style house. Contemporary Ranch Style homes are often accented with details borrowed from Mediterranean or Colonial styles. The earth-hugging Prairie Style houses pioneered by Frank Lloyd Wright and the informal Bungalow styles of the early 20th century paved the way for the popular Ranch Style. After World War II, real estate developers turned to the simple, economical Ranch Style to meet the housing needs of returning soldiers and their families.

The briefly popular Lustron Homes were essentially Ranch houses made of metal. Because so many Ranch houses were built quickly according to a cookie-cutter formula, the Ranch Style later became known as ordinary and, at times, slipshod. However, during the late s and s, a few real estate developers re-invented the style, giving the conventional one-story Ranch House a modernist flair.

A traditional Ranch Style house is only one story, but a Raised Ranch raises the roof to provide extra living space. In this variation of the Ranch Style, the home has two stories. The lower story is at ground level or partially submerged below grade. From the main entrance, a full flight of stairs leads to the main living areas on the upper level. Some critics say that Raised Ranch houses are unattractive or ordinary. However, there's no question that this practical style fills a need for space and flexibility.

The Raised Ranch style has been adapted to take on a variety of forms. Neo-Mediterranean, Neo-Colonial, and other contemporary styles are often applied to the simple, practical Raised Ranch shape. Split-level homes may also be described as a variation on the Raised Ranch style. However, a true Raised Ranch has only two levels, while a split-level home has three stories or more. Split-level design reflects an approach popularized by American architect Frank Lloyd Wright.

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Wright believed that houses with "half floors" would blend naturally with the landscape. Living areas could be separated from private areas by just a few steps, rather than a single long staircase. One section is lowered and one section is raised. Regardless of the floor plan, split-level houses always have three or more levels.

The main entrance is usually although not always on the center level. Made of steel coated panels with porcelain enamel, Lustron Homes were manufactured like cars and transported across the country. President Harry Truman pressured builders and suppliers to construct affordable housing. Many architects and designers, including Frank Lloyd Wright and Buckminster Fuller , tried to design inexpensive prefabricated housing that could be built quickly.

One of the most promising ventures was the Lustron Home by businessman and inventor Carl Strandlund. The first Lustron house was produced in March Over the next two years, 2, Lustron Homes were manufactured. The steel houses were made like cars on conveyor belts in a former aircraft plant in Columbus, Ohio. Flatbed trucks transported the Lustron panels to 36 states, where they were assembled on concrete slabs using nuts and bolts. Assembly took about two weeks. Orders for some 20, Lustron Homes poured in, but by the Lustron Corporation was bankrupt.

Today, well-preserved Lustron homes are scarce. Many have been demolished. Others have been altered as homeowners added drywall interiors and new exterior siding. Real estate developer Joseph Eichler brought a fresh, new modernist approach to affordable tract housing. Eichler House describes homes constructed by California real estate developer Joseph Eichler.

Between and , Joseph Eichler's company, Eichler Homes, constructed about 11, houses in California and three houses in New York state. An Eichler House is essentially a one-story Ranch, but Eichler's company reinvented the style, creating a revolutionary new approach to suburban tract housing. Many other builders across the United States imitated the design ideas that Joseph Eichler pioneered. Although not comprehensive, some of the best places to look for Eichler homes and buildings include:. In Palm Springs, California, the Alexander Construction Company also pioneered modernist approaches to suburban housing, building thousands of open, sophisticated Alexander Homes.

Inventor Buckminster Fuller wanted to provide affordable, energy-efficient housing for a troubled planet. Developed by Buckminster Fuller in , the Geodesic Dome was promoted as the world's strongest, most economical, lightweight structure. The ingenious engineering of the geodesic dome allows it to cover a wide stretch of space without using internal supports. The geodesic dome design was patented in Geodesic Domes are ideal for emergency housing and mobile shelters such as military camps.

However, the innovative geodesic shape has been adopted for elegant, upscale housing. Fuller's geometric architecture should not be confused with the Monolithic Dome home, which is by definition constructed of one stone piece. Real estate developers Robert and George Alexander captured the spirit of mid-century modernism, building more than 2, tract homes in southern California.

During the late s and early s, the George Alexander Construction Company partnered with several architects to develop a unique approach to tract housing. Although the company worked in and near Palm Springs, California, the houses they built were imitated across the United States. The Alexander Construction Company gave their homes a variety of roof lines and exterior details, making each home seem unique. But behind their facades, Alexander Homes shared many similarities. With a dramatic, sloping roof and cozy living quarters, the A-frame shape became a popular choice for vacation homes.

Triangular and tee-pee shaped homes date back to the dawn of time, but several 20th-century architects awakened interest in the geometric A-frame form. In the mids, Austrian-born architect Rudolph Schindler designed a simple A-frame vacation house in a resort community overlooking Lake Arrowhead in California. Built for Gisela Bennati, Schindler's A-frame Bennati House had an open floor plan with exposed rafters and glass-walled gables.

Fifteen years later, other builders explored the A-frame shape, constructing landmark examples and variations of the form. In , San Francisco designer John Carden Campbell won acclaim for his modernist "Leisure House" made of smooth plywood with all-white interiors. Campbell's A-frame houses spread via do-it-yourself kits and plans. The A-frame shape peaked in popularity during the s. Enthusiasm waned during the s as vacationers opted for condos, or else built much larger homes.

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On the other hand, the sloped A-frame roof creates a triangular "dead space" at the interior base of the walls on each floor. A-frame houses have limited living space and are usually built as vacation cottages for the mountains or beach. A-frame "Swiss Miss" houses combine the charm of a Swiss chalet with the tropical flavor of a Polynesian hut. Swiss Miss is an informal name given to a variation of the A-Frame house style. Other firms built similar homes elsewhere in the United States, but Swiss Miss remained a rare, novelty style, mainly associated with Palm Springs.

It was not constructed during America's colonial times. Neocolonial is a modern, Neoeclectic style that loosely borrows ideas from the past. Constructed in the late 20th century through the present time, Neocolonial houses have details suggested by historic Colonial and Colonial Revival architecture. Neocolonial or Builder's Colonial houses incorporate a mixture of historic styles adapted for contemporary lifestyles. New England Colonial, Southern Colonial, Georgian, and Federal details are imitated using low-maintenance modern materials. The idea is to convey the traditional, refined atmosphere of a Colonial home, but not to recreate a Colonial style.

Unlike the earlier Colonial Revival homes, the interiors of Neocolonial, or Builder's Colonial, homes are thoroughly modern with great rooms, high-tech kitchens, and other conveniences. A recently-built home likely incorporates many styles. Architects and designers call this new stylistic mix Neoeclectic or Neo-eclectic.

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In California, authentic Spanish colonial houses were built with local materials for comfort and convenience, with both construction and ornamentation traditional. Spanish Colonial or Adobe Architecture of California: [Donald R. Hannaford, Revel Edwards, David Gebhard] on irelytuqypov.ml *FREE* shipping on.

A Neoeclectic home can be difficult to describe because it combines many styles. The shape of the roof, the design of the windows, and decorative details may be inspired by several periods and cultures. During the late s, a rebellion against modernism and a longing for more traditional styles influenced the design of modest tract housing in North America. Builders began to borrow freely from a variety of historic traditions, offering Neoeclectic houses that were "customized" using a mixture of features selected from construction catalogs.

These homes are sometimes called Postmodern because they borrow from a variety of styles without consideration for continuity or context. However, Neoeclectic homes are not usually experimental and do not reflect the artistic vision you would find in a truly original, architect-designed postmodern home. Critics use the term McMansion to describe a Neoeclectic home that is over-sized and pretentious.

Coined from the McDonald's fast food restaurant, the name McMansion implies that these homes are hastily assembled using cheaply-made materials and a menu of mix-and-match decorative details. Details from Spain, Italy, and other Mediterranean countries combine with North American ideas to create contemporary Mediterranean or Neo-Mediterranean homes. Neo-Mediterranean is a Neoeclectic house style that incorporates a fanciful mix of details suggested by the architecture of Spain, Italy, and Greece, Morocco, and the Spanish Colonies.

Realtors often call Neo-Mediterrean houses Mediterranean or Spanish style.

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However, Neo-Mediterranean houses are not careful recreations of any single historic style. If you remove the romantic decorative details, a Neo-Mediterranean home is more likely to resemble a no-nonsense, all-American Ranch or Raised Ranch. Like all Neoeclectic houses, a Neo-Mediterranean home is usually constructed with modern-day materials such as vinyl siding, vinyl windows, asphalt roof shingles, and synthetic stucco and stone. In the latter half of the 20th century, architects and builders turned away from historic housing styles.

These modern homes took on a wide variety of shapes. Here are a few of the most popular categories identified by architectural historians Virginia and Lee McAlester:.

When we describe a house as modern, we are saying that the design is not based primarily on history or traditions. In contrast, a Neoeclectic or Neotraditional home incorporates decorative details borrowed from the past. A Postmodern home also borrows details from the past, often exaggerating or distorting the details. A Neoeclectic or Postmodern home might have features such as dentil mouldings or Palladian windows.

A modern home is not likely to have these types of details. Unique, whimsical, and surprising, Postmodern houses give the impression that anything goes. The impossible is not only possible, but exaggerated. Postmodern or post-modern architecture evolved from Modernism , yet it rebels against that style. Modernism is viewed as excessively minimalist, anonymous, monotonous, and boring.

Postmodernism has a sense of humor. The style often combines two or more very different elements. A Postmodern house may combine traditional with invented forms or use familiar shapes in surprising, unexpected ways. In other words, postmodern houses often don't have anything in common with one another, other than their lack of commonality. Postmodern houses may be bizarre, humorous, or shocking, but they are always unique.

Sometimes the term Postmodern is loosely used to describe Neoeclectic and Neotraditional homes that combine a variety of historic styles. But unless there is a sense of surprise, irony, or originality, Neoeclectic and Neotraditional homes are not truly postmodern. Postmodern houses are also sometimes called "Contemporaries," but a true Contemporary Style house does not incorporate traditional or historical architectural details.

Also known as EcoShells, Monolithic Domes can survive tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes, fire, and insects. A Monolithic Dome is a one-piece structure made with concrete and rebar ridged steel rods. By definition a Monolithic Dome is built in one piece with a stone-like material, unlike an igloo or geodesic dome.

A monolith is from the Greek word monolithos , meaning "one" mono- "stone" lithos. The idea of constructing dome-shaped structures dates back to prehistoric times and is a house style found around the world. In the s, Southern California architect Wallace Neff developed "bubble houses" or what he called Airforms. The style was ahead of its time in the United States, but was used to create affordable housing in developing countries.

The development of modern concrete and steel Monolithic Domes is credited to designer David B. When he was a teenager, South heard architect-inventor Buckminster Fuller speak about the innovative geodesic dome that he developed.

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Fascinated, South began experimenting. In , South worked with his brothers Barry and Randy to construct a dome-shaped potato storage facility in Shelley, Idaho. Measuring feet round and 35 feet high, the structure is considered the first modern Monolithic Dome. David B. South patented the process and established an enterprise for constructing Monolithic Dome homes, schools, churches, sports stadiums, and commercial buildings. In , Domes for the World Foundation supplied about 70 of these homes to earthquake survivors. Inspired by the need for emergency housing after Hurricane Katrina, these cozy prefabricated cottages took America by storm.

In , many homes and communities along America's Gulf Coast were destroyed by the hurricane and the floods that followed. Architects responded to the crisis by designing low-cost emergency shelters. The Katrina Cottage was a highly popular solution because its simple, traditional Primitive Hut design suggested the architecture of a cozy turn-of-the-century house. The original Katrina Cottage was developed by Marianne Cusato and other leading architects, including renowned architect and town planner Andres Duany.

Cusato's square foot prototype was later adapted to create a series of about two dozen different versions of the Katrina Cottage designed by a variety of architects and firms. Katrina Cottages are typically small, ranging from less than square feet up to about 1, square feet. A limited number of Katrina Cottage designs are 1, square feet and larger. While size and floor plans can vary, Katrina Cottages share many features. These quaint cottages are prefab houses constructed from factory-made panels.

For this reason, Katrina Cottages can be built quickly often within a few days and economically. Katrina Cottages are also especially durable. These homes meet the International Building Code and most hurricane codes. Share Flipboard Email. Jackie Craven, Doctor of Arts in Writing, has over 20 years of experience writing about architecture and the arts. She is the author of two books on home decor and sustainable design and a collection of art-themed poetry.

Post and beam, rectangular footprint One story with additional half story under roof Side gable roof, fairly steep Center chimney Shingle or clapboard exterior siding Little ornamentation. Massive chimney at the center Second story protruding over first story Saltbox roof shape that slopes down in the rear Diamond-paned windows. Matching chimneys on each side, or a massive wishbone-shaped chimney at the front Wide, slightly flared eaves , or Gambrel roof , or Gambrel roof with flared eaves.

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As a whole it represents a rich eclectic and innovative tradition. The space-efficient floor plan of bungalow houses may have also been inspired by army tents and rural English cottages. The roof is steeply pitched and irregular. Brief comments on dimensions, p. The Alexander Construction Company gave their homes a variety of roof lines and exterior details, making each home seem unique.

Most often found in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Maryland Two-feet thick walls made with sandstone Reinforced stone arches above the first floor windows and doors Hand-hewn beams pinned with wooden pegs Exposed half-timbering Flared eaves Massive wishbone-shaped chimney. Some common characteristics include:. Square, symmetrical shape Paneled front door at center Decorative crown over front door Flattened columns on each side of door Five windows across front Paired chimneys Medium pitched roof Minimal roof overhang 9 or 12 small window panes in each window sash Dentil molding square, tooth-like cuts along the eaves.

Low-pitched roof, or flat roof with a balustrade Windows arranged symmetrically around a center doorway Semicircular fanlight over the front door Narrow side windows flanking the front door Decorative crown or roof over front door Tooth-like dentil moldings in the cornice Palladian window Circular or elliptical windows Shutters Decorative swags and garlands Oval rooms and arches.

These architects are known for their Federalist buildings:. Lower level elevated on stilts or pilings Two stories with porches on both levels The porch often surrounds the entire house Wide eaves Roof is often although not always hipped Wooden construction Usually located near water, especially the coastal regions of the American south. Located in the American South, Southwest, and California One story Flat roof, or roof with a low pitch Earth, thatch, or clay tile roof covering Thick walls made with rocks, coquina, or adobe brick coated with stucco Several exterior doors Small windows, originally without glass Wooden or wrought iron bars across the windows Interior shutters.

Later Spanish Colonial homes had more elaborate features, such as:. Second story with recessed porches and balconies Interior courtyards Carved wooden brackets and balustrades Double hung sash windows Dentil moldings and other Greek Revival details. Greek Revival houses usually have these features:. Pedimented gable Symmetrical shape Heavy cornice Wide, plain frieze Bold, simple moldings Entry porch with columns Decorative pilasters Narrow windows around front door. Characteristics of Renaissance Revival houses include:. Arched, recessed openings Full entablatures between floors Columns Ground floor made of rusticated stone with beveled edges and deeply-recessed joints.

Only a few thousand Octagon houses were built, and not many remain. Octagon houses usually have these features:.

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Octagonal or rounded shape, usually although not always with 8 sides Cupola Porches, usually one-story. Common features found on Victorian Stick Style homes are:. Rectangular shape Wood siding Steep, gabled roof Overhanging eaves Ornamental trusses gable braces Decorative braces and brackets Decorative half-timbering Jerkinhead dormers. Just plain folk could afford these simple North American homes, built between and Folk Victorian houses usually have:. Square, symmetrical shape Brackets under the eaves Porches with spindlework or flat, jigsaw cut trim.

Some Folk Victorian homes have:. Carpenter Gothic details Low-pitched, pyramid shaped roof Front gable and side wings. Queen Anne details include:. Steep roof Complicated, asymmetrical shape Front-facing gable One-story porch that extends across one or two sides of the house Round or square towers Wall surfaces textured with decorative shingles, patterned masonry, or half-timbering Ornamental spindles and brackets Bay windows.

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Special financing available. Any international shipping and import charges are paid in part to Pitney Bowes Inc. Learn More - opens in a new window or tab International shipping and import charges paid to Pitney Bowes Inc. A series of regular perforations in the perimeter form flues to regulate the rate at which the fire burns. When the furnace has cooled, the charcoal is removed and the dome, bake hard and self supporting is empty — ready for the next batch of wood.

With the participation of 54 authors, the book Earth Architecture in Portugal is an assembly of essays and work by professionals with expertise on the topics of architecture and construction with earth. Topics include technology, materials, history, anthropology, conservation and particular attention is given to the contemporary architecture constructed of earth in the two last decades in Portugal.

Publication is in English and Portuguese, 23 x 32 cm Hard Layer — pages. The publication offers a perspective on the current state of earthen architecture in an international context.