Parenting a Teenager with One Hundred Tweets on Control and Consequences (Ask Pat)

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Her husband, Jesse Shapiro, is an economist at Brown as well, known for his work on political polarization, and her parents are both economists at Yale. I have a high opportunity cost.

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That makes sense. Oster was a precocious child. When she was not yet two, she often talked to herself before she fell asleep at night. One day, her mother mentioned this habit to a woman at a faculty gathering. The woman, a developmental psychologist named Katherine Nelson, was intrigued. But the monologues are fascinating for anyone who has ever wondered how toddlers think.

Her childcare schedule is split between nursery school and day care at the home of a woman named Tanta. She carpools with a boy named Carl:. Sometimes I stay with Tanta all week. And sometimes we play mom and dad. And the monologues are highly representative of Oster today. What is going to happen tomorrow? Oster still keeps a precise schedule. She shook her head. It was a.

Can you get dressed? What are you doing? I made muffins. Oster ducked into his closet, swiftly selecting clothes. She sat on the bed and read the book at the pace of a podcast playing at 1. Penelope crept in, wearing a long-sleeved T-shirt and pink leggings, with a red bow in her hair. At , Oster hustled the kids down to the kitchen for breakfast.

She set out a plate of sliced strawberries alongside the muffins.

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Yelling and using the wrong words is not okay. I lost social media. But there's also the argument that needs to be acknowledged that parenting isn't a formula. I'm tougher than you, dad? She sits on the board of the Footscray Community Arts Centre. We acknowledge and thank our Premium Sponsor. Probably the most prominent political prisoner in Saudi Arabia is Raif Badawi, who was publicly lashed.

Mother and children sat around the table, Finn wearing a T-shirt and Stormtrooper underpants. I found out about it when I started studying Japan in school. I studied Japan for three months. Should he be circumcised? Should I use this breast-feeding supplement thing that gets taped on my boob? What kind of bottles should we buy? Should I use this formula or that formula? Where should she sleep? At first, Oster and her husband made decisions on the fly, like everyone else.

They ricocheted between various sleep-training techniques and ordered too much gear from Amazon. Exhibit A is breast-feeding. By the nineteen-seventies, after the baby-formula industry aggressively marketed its product to doctors, breast-feeding had declined precipitously in the U. It was revived in the nineteen-eighties, thanks to large-scale public-health campaigns, and later to studies showing such health benefits as improved metabolism and higher I.

I am one hundred per cent, absolutely breast-feeding! My daughter quickly developed a firm preference for the bottle over the breast. It was. After reviewing the literature, Oster believes that the health benefits of breast-feeding are real, but that they have been oversold. She zeroes in on the issue at the center of so many debates about medical research: determining causality. So researchers are left mainly with observational studies, which examine the babies whose mothers have chosen to breast-feed.

In the U.

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Do breast-fed babies thrive because of breast-feeding, or because their parents have more money and higher academic degrees? In many areas, such as obesity and I. Breast-feeding rates were low, and researchers encouraged half the mothers to take up the practice. Over the years, official recommendations for avoiding SIDS have changed dramatically. When I was a child, my mother put me to sleep on my stomach, surrounded by bumpers and stuffed animals. Today, that would probably get you reported to Child Protective Services. Co-sleepers sometimes contend that the safety warnings are too stringent, and Oster provides them with some support.

She argues that the increased risk of SIDS associated with co-sleeping has a lot to do with other parental behaviors. Economics is a science of decision-making. What do you want? Or you and your own parental guilt. Why is child rearing so touchy? Why does it cause us to engage in Facebook flame wars, and to think terrible thoughts about our dearest friends?

The U. After Dr.

Spock, numerous experts popped up, often with conflicting advice. Then came the Internet. That sounds nice.

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Mothers are perfectly free to be judgmental, dictatorial, and obsessive, and it multiplies anxieties. Oster believes that the Mommy Wars arise from a kind of loss aversion. I just did it because I liked it. In April, Oster participated in a lunchtime Q. The audience was made up of graduate students and young professors—all passionate Osterites.

The conversation soon turned to mommy bloggers. What to do about them? Oster gave the group a pep talk. Paths d , e , and f Hypothesis 2 suggest that more positive parental attitudes, greater subjective norms and higher levels of self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenager are associated with higher levels of parents' intentions to talk about sexual behavior with their teenagers. Previous studies have demonstrated positive relationships between parent-teenager sexual communication and parents' attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy toward sexual communication 6 , 11 - Path g Hypothesis 3 suggests that higher levels of parental intentions to talk about sexual behavior with their teenagers are associated with greater open family communication, parent-teenager sexual communication, and parent-teenager comfort with sexual communication, reported by both parents and teenagers.

Other researchers have reported positive associations between teenager levels of parent-teenager sexual communication and levels of acculturation 15 , familism values 6 and knowledge about sex Path i Hypothesis 5 suggests that higher levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms regarding sexual communication with parents are associated with higher levels of parents' and teenagers' perceptions of open family communication, parent-teenager sexual communication, and comfort with sexual communication. Findings from one study that did not include Latino parents and teenagers suggested a positive association between measures of teenagers' beliefs and subjective norms toward parent-teenager sexual communication and the amount of parent-teenager communication about sexuality reported only by the teenagers Paths j , k and l Hypothesis 6 suggest that higher levels of parents' and teenagers' perceptions of open family communication, parent-teenager sexual communication, and comfort with sexual communication are associated with lower levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms toward having sex in the next 3 months, and higher levels of self-efficacy about avoiding risky sexual behavior.

Other researchers have reported positive relations between parent-teenager communication and teenagers' attitudes, subjective norms and self-efficacy toward risky sexual behavior 9 , 16 , 18 - However, only one study reported findings specifically for Latino teenagers Paths m , n , and o Hypothesis 7 suggest that lower levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms toward having sex in the next 3 months and higher levels of self-efficacy about avoiding risky sexual behavior are associated with lower levels of teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months.

Previous studies have shown relationships between teenagers' attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy about avoiding risky sexual behavior and teenagers' sexual risk behaviors 22 - The present study assessed individually the components of the PETPB model with a sample of Latino teenagers and parents in the United States, and analyzed both teenagers' and parents' reports of parent-teenager general communication, sexual communication, and comfort with sexual communication.

A cross-sectional correlational design was used based on a secondary analysis of baseline data collected as part of a randomized control trial designed to test the efficacy of a parent computer-based intervention designed to increase Latino parent-teenager sexual communication The participants in this study were recruited from Southwest Detroit, in a Latino community area with the largest concentration of Latinos in the state of Michigan. Recruitment was through fliers, advertisement in a bilingual newspaper, and via personal contact and presentations made at schools and community-based programs, such as English and health promotion courses.

This study analyzed the pre-assessment questionnaires that were completed by the sample of Latino parents and their teenagers between ages of 12 - Institutional Review Board approval for the secondary analysis was obtained from the University of Alabama at Birmingham. The measures used in this study were previously translated, back-translated, pilot tested, modified in Spanish, and were used with Mexican parents in previous studies 14 , Table 1 shows the Cronbach alpha internal consistency reliability for the study measures, which ranged from 0.

Items were measured with 5-point Likert-type scales with higher scores indicating greater perceptions of attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy toward sexual communication with teenager and higher levels of familism, knowledge, communication and comfort with sexual communication. The validity of all the instruments was previously reported 26 - The Latino acculturation scale used preferred language as a proxy measure of acculturation and included parents' and teenagers' reports of their preferences for using English or Spanish for speaking, reading, and the preferred language used in the home.

Higher scores indicated higher Latino acculturation and lower scores indicated Anglo acculturation. Familism was measured with an adapted version of the Attitudinal Familism Scale 28 which included four interrelated dimensions of familism: a familial obligations six items ; b perceived support from the family one item ; c family as referents seven items. The same scale was used with both parents and teenagers. The scale to measure parents' attitudes toward sexual communication with their teenager assessed parents' feelings about talking with their teenager about sex, contraceptive methods, and condom use.

Open family communication was measured with the Parent-Teenager Communication Openness Subscale 29 that assessed openness of general communication between parent and teenager. Parent-teenager sexual communication was measured by the Parent-Teen Sexual Risk Communication Scale 19 that assessed the amount of information the parents had shared with the teenager during the past 3 months about parents' feelings about the teenagers' sexual behavior, contraception, STDs, HIVs, protection from STDs and HIV, condoms, postponing or not having sex, peer pressure and sexual pressure from peers and dating partners, and how to resist pressure from peers and dating partners.

The Comfort with Sexual Communication Scale 20 included eight questions that assessed the level of comfort in discussing various sexual topics e. The scale measuring teenagers' attitudes regarding sexual communication with parents assessed the degree to which the teenagers have a positive or negative evaluation or appraisal of parent-teenager sexual communication The scale measuring teenagers' subjective norms regarding sexual communication with parents assessed the teenagers' perception of whether people considered important to them would approve or disapprove their talking with parents about sex, contraceptive methods, and condom use Teenagers' attitudes toward having sex in the next 3 months was measured with one single question: "How do you feel about having sex in the next 3 months?

Teenagers' subjective norms toward having sex in the next 3 months was measured with one question "Would most people who are important to you approve or disapprove of your having sex in the next 3 months? Teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months were measured with one question "How likely is it that you will decide to have sex in the next 3 months?

Responses ranged from 1 very unlikely to 5 very likely. A level of significance of. For each of the seven research hypotheses, the data were analyzed in two stages: an exploratory stage using simple and multiple linear regression to examine the relationships between independent and dependent variables specific to each hypothesis , and a confirmatory stage using path analysis techniques to test the extent to which the relationships identified in the exploratory stage supported the proposed model. CFI values of. Effect sizes and Cohen's 31 guidelines were used to describe the magnitude of the relationship between the variables.

A total of The length of time they had lived in the United States averaged A total of 70 In the exploratory stage, only two predictors, parent familism Std. Both predictors had medium effect on the outcome of parents' attitudes toward sexual communication with their teenagers. In the second regression model only the predictors of parent Latino acculturation Std. Parent Latino acculturation Std.

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One Hundred Tweets on Parenting a Teenager (Ask Pat Book 1) eBook: Ask P.A.T: Effective Communication, Control and Consequences and much more. This first eBook of One Hundred Tweets on Parent a Teenager focuses on general parenting. It gives you an alternative ways of thinking and dealing with the.

Both Latino acculturation and parental knowledge had a medium effect on the outcome of parents' self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenagers. The confirmatory stage for the first hypothesis supported the findings from the multiple regression analyses. The path analysis suggested a good fit of the model to the data for the hypothesis one, with two of the three indices providing support for the null hypothesis that the model fit the data well Figure 2.

Hypothesis 2: Higher levels of parental attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenager are associated with higher levels of parental intentions to talk about sexual behavior with their teenagers. In the exploratory stage, only the predictor of parents' subjective norms toward sexual communication with their teenager was significantly associated with the outcome of parents' intentions to talk about sexual behavior with their teenagers Std.

This predictor had a medium effect on the outcome. The confirmatory stage supported the findings from the multiple regression analysis and showed a good fit model for two of the evaluation parameters for goodness of fit see Figure 2.

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Hypothesis 3: Higher levels of parental intentions to talk about sexual behavior with their teenagers are associated with greater open family communication, parent-teenager sexual communication, and parent-teenager comfort with sexual communication, reported by both parents and teenagers. In the exploratory stage, the predictor of parents' intentions to talk about sexual behavior with their teenager was significantly associated with three outcomes: parent-teenager sexual communication perceived by parent Std.

However, the results of the path analysis in the confirmatory stage suggested that the model did not fit the data Figure 2. Figure 2 shows the model fit statistics presented in shaded boxes. The results of the path analyses in the confirmatory stage suggested that the model was a good fit to the data see Figure 3.

Figure 3 shows the model fit statistics presented in shaded boxes. Hypothesis 5 : Higher levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms regarding sexual communication with parents are associated with higher levels of parents' and teenagers' perceptions of open family communication, parent-teenager sexual communication, and comfort with sexual communication. In the exploratory stage, only the predictor of teenagers' attitudes regarding sexual communication with parents was significantly associated with higher levels of open family communication Std.

In the confirmatory stage, the path model suggested that the model did not have a good fit to the data see Figure 3. Hypothesis 6: Higher levels of parent and teenager perceptions of open family communication, parent-teenager sexual communication, and comfort with sexual communication are associated with lower levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms toward having sex in the next 3 months, and higher levels of self-efficacy about avoiding risky sexual behavior.

Only the predictor of teenagers' subjective norms toward having sex in the next 3 months was significantly associated with the outcome of comfort with sexual communication perceived by teenager Std. In other words, teenagers who perceived approval from significant others for them to have sex in the next 3 months reported higher comfort with sexual communication with parents.

Issues with multicollinearity were evidenced between the predictors of parent-teenager sexual communication and comfort with sexual communication perceived by parents, which means that these two variables were redundant. In the confirmatory stage, the path model suggested that the model did not provide good fit to the data see Figure 3. Hypothesis 7: Lower levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms toward having sex in the next 3 months and higher levels of self-efficacy about avoiding risky sexual behavior are associated with lower levels of teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months.

Only the predictor of teenagers' attitudes toward having sex in the next 3 months was significantly associated with the outcome of teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months Std. In the confirmatory stage, the path model suggested that the model did not provide good fit to the data Figure 3. The PETPB model posits that external variables may influence parents' behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, control beliefs, and intentions, which then influence teenager behavioral, normative and control beliefs, and thus influence teenagers' risky sexual behavior 4.

Because of the small sample size parents and teenagers , it was not feasible to conduct a statistical analysis to test the full model at one time. Instead, seven separate analyses were conducted to test hypotheses that were developed based on findings from previous research and on the relationships predicted by the model. The findings from this study provide partial support for each of the hypotheses that were derived from the conceptual model that guided the study, as noted in Figure 1. Although, parent-teenager sexual communication may influence teenager risky sexual behavior, there is limited evidence about how parental sexual communication may influence the teenagers' attitudes, subjective norms and self-efficacy toward risky sexual behavior.

Unexpectedly, parent Latino acculturation was negatively associated with parents' self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenagers. One explanation for this may be that the Latino acculturation variable was measured only with questions related to language of preference. Using a more comprehensive measure of acculturation may have yielded different results. The different language preferences of parents and teenagers may have created a barrier for parent-teenager sexual communication, and may explain the negative association between parental Latino acculturation and self-efficacy towards sexual communication.

No previous studies were identified that examined the relationship between these specific variables, although studies have identified positive relationships between actual parent-teenager communication and parental acculturation sample of Latino teenagers, males and females, mean age of The second hypothesis was partially supported. Parental subjective norms toward sexual communication with their teenagers are positively related to their intentions to talk with their teenagers about sex.

There were no signficant relations between parental attitudes and self-eficacy towards sexual communication and intentions to talk about sexual behavior. One explanation for this finding may be the homogeneity of responses on parental attitudes and parental intentions towards sexual communication.

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No previous studies were identified that specifically measured relationships examined in the second hypothesis between parents' intentions to talk about sexual behavior and parents' attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenagers. However, previous studies have demonstrated positive relationships between actual parent-teenager sexual communication and parents' attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy toward sexual communication 6 , 11 - 14 a sample of Mexican parents who had teenagers between 14 and 17 years of age, male and female, living in Mexico 6 ; predominately African-American mothers and teenagers, ages , male and female, living in the U.

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The findings did not support the model proposed by the third hypothesis that there would be positive relations between parental intentions to talk about sexual behavior and communication variables reported by both parents and teenagers. However, findings from regression analyses suggested that three variables open family communication perceived by the teenager, parent-teenager sexual communication and comfort with sexual communication perceived by the parent were related to parental intentions to talk about sexual behavior.

One explanation for the failure to support the full model may be the interrelationships among the multiple communication variables. No previous studies were identified that specifically examined the relations tested in the third hypothesis. Only one of three relations that were predicted in the fourth hypothesis was supported by the findings.

Teenager sexual knowledge but not Latino acculturation or familism was related to teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms regarding sexual communication with parents. Although no previous studies were identified examining these specific relationships, two studies were identified that reported positive relations between teenager sexual knowledge and perceptions of actual parent-teenager sexual communication 16 , 32 , sample of teenager African American males, aged , living in the U.

Findings related to the fifth hypothesis suggested that teenager attitudes towards sexual communication with parents but not their subjective norms were related to teenager but not to parent perceptions of open family communication, parent-teenager sexual communication, and comfort with sexual communication. However, the data did not support the path model for this hypothesis. These findings contradicted findings from one study that did not include Latinos, had a sample of teenagers with mean age of 16 years, male and female, of mixed race, living in the Netherlands which reported a positive association between teenagers' beliefs and subjective norms toward parent-teenager sexual communication and teenagers' reports of parent-teenager sexual communication The sixth hypothesis did not support the path model that predicted relationships between different parent-teenager communication variables and teenagers' attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy about avoiding risky sexual behavior.

Teenagers' perceived comfort with parent-teenager communication but not parent or teenager perceptions of open family communication or parent-teenager sexual communication was related to teenagers' subjective norms toward having sex in the next 3 months. Only one other study was found that examined these relationships in Latino families Latino mothers and teenagers, aged , male and female, predominately from Mexico, living in the U.

The seventh hypothesis was also only partially supported by the data. Teenagers' attitudes but not subjective norms or self-efficacy toward having sex in the next 3 months were positively associated with their intentions to have sex in the next 3 months. This result might be explained by the fact that only 11 teenagers reported intentions to have sex in the next 3 months, and thus there may not have been sufficient variability to identify significant relations. This finding was consistent with findings reported previously 22 , 25 that favorable attitudes but not subjective norms or self-efficacy toward engaging in sexual intercourse were related to sexual activity sample of African-American teenager females, age 22 ; Latino teenagers, male and female, age , living in the U.

There were some limitations to the current study that should be addressed in order to provide directions for future research. First, the secondary data analyses were derived from a randomized controlled trial - pre-intervention survey, thus limiting the ability to identify longitudinal predictive relationships.

Second, the measure used to assess acculturation focused on the respondents' preferred language, and did not include other components of acculturation such as values and group affiliation.