Chaque citoyen peut intervenir en tant que client sur la toile, donner son avis et devenir un acteur influent. Their members communicate in language that is natural, open, honest, direct, funny and often shocking. Whether explaining or complaining, joking or serious, the human voice is unmistakably genuine. Ainsi apparaissent les forums et ensuite les avis des clients et influenceurs blogueurs, You tubeurs,.. Ils sont les nouveaux influenceurs digitaux, ces blogueurs, youtubers, etc.
Une charge contre un professionnel qui doit respecter la face du client. Charaudeau, p. Develotte, R. Kern, M. Et pas nous descendre sur TripAdvisor, nous faisons parfois des erreurs, mais comme tout le monde je crois! Nous aussi! Quand au dessert Tiramisu, aucune saveur, sans biscuit a la base. Il existe deux types de marques dans le monde Ce sont des marques sur lesquelles les gens aiment parler et des marques dont ils ne parlent pas La force des mots : valeurs et violence dans les interactions verbales, 30 janvier Le Figaro. MARC E. Oui Non. Q9 : Si Oui, pourriez-vous citer quelques exemples?
Combien de temps par semaine approximativement? Selon Portolen et al. Davis et al.
Botti et al. Besoin de sophistication [pas besoin actuel, mais possible utilisation dans le futur [Simon et al. Notamment, Avrier et al. Bloch et D. BOTTI, al. DEVIS, al. PARK, al. PETR C. Quels sont pour vous ses atouts? Par exemple, la destination,… —— Que souhaitez-vous trouver sur Internet comme informations, contenus, services?
Que recherchez-vous? First of all, I would like to congratulate all those researchers who, often taking their rest time, have decided to do research, to conduct surveys, to write down studies or even to organize interviews to feed our understanding of the world in which we are living. We can only be delighted and proud to see that CirVath always fits into the mission we set for it when it was created 10 years ago now.
It brings a certain added value to our international group: no education without applied research. It stimulates debate and brings new ideas that will change our teachings in the years to come. It is true that the behavior of new generations, new technologies, improvement in artificial intelligence and nanoscience, will quickly lead us to change our ways of teaching. A working team is already in place within the Vatel group to review curricula, provide new teaching resources and train teachers in new ways of transmitting knowledge and competences.
We can only be delighted by the fact that the different articles of these 10th International Journal of Tourism once again provide a well-grounded and profoundly concrete insight to provide answers to all the questions we have just mentioned. The Vatel Group through the CirVath publications proves once again its dynamism in the reflections that drive higher education and the hospitality industry by providing relevant answers and observations.
I wish you a good reading and hope that you find there, each and every one, some beginnings of answers to the questions which you may face in your daily professional life. Translation: Mr. In primitive hunter-gatherer societies where writing did not exist, parents taught their children the basics of survival with a learning by doing approach and also by introducing them to a playful aspect. With the emergence of language, our societies became more complex and specialized so that parents lacked expertise in many areas and could no longer teach everything to their children.
This gave birth, at different times and in different forms to the school system. For the first time, people from outside the family participated in the education of the child, quickly creating a hierarchy between professor and student, professor and learner. The first dictated his knowledge and his law; the second obeyed and learned. Vocational training was born: one acquired a know-how, even if sometimes, the know-how was highly intellectual. Before the book, teaching was not really uniform; the professors spoke of what they knew, in the way that seemed the most appropriate to them.
The pupils received knowledge, sometimes erroneous, that they could not obtain anywhere else. The massive production of books put an end to this but it allowed the professors to transmit the most recent knowledge and the students to work at their own pace. The standardization of education has accelerated. The challenge was then: how to use standardized teaching effectively without undermining the individual skills of each professor.
Then came two great schools of thought in education: the one that advocated a primarily practice-oriented education, aimed at giving students professional skills and knowledge; and the one for whom the quest for knowledge was a noble process that sufficed for itself. At the same time, the world has experienced three great technological and economic revolutions in two centuries: —— The first extends from to , with the first factories then the steam engine and the railway network.
The third revolution began around , with the arrival of NBIC technologies Nanotechnologies, Biotechnologies, Information Technology and Cognitive Sciences that will change humanity. Actually it is, more and more, a single science, whose parts are interdependent: the science of the 21st is structured around the Internet and Artificial Intelligence AI. The speed of evolution of our society and the uncertainty of its direction, have never been so high.
Indeed, the progress of AI will transform the machine to develop the human intelligence, in other words the school whose function is to transmit the essential fundamental knowledge so that the individual can take his place in society and to be useful to it. The immense challenge that we must overcome is now our utility in a world that will soon be saturated with Artificial Intelligence.
In his latest book, Dr Laurent Alexandre, a specialist in technological revolutions and their challenges, explains how Artificial Intelligence will revolutionize education and teaching. According to him, what we currently need to do, is to review education and training, because if AI is the problem, it would also be the solution. In the light of these upheavals to come, the question is about the kind of educational system that should be provided to enable the men of tomorrow to confront AI on equal terms and to live harmoniously with it.
By breaking the uniformity of traditional education, new technologies will allow a maximum individualization of education. As Emmanuel Davidenkoff explained, the techniques that were invented centuries ago, for an elite, are being reactivated, at a lower cost, thanks to new technologies. TEACHING SYSTEMS Public higher education still has a profound contradiction to resolve: on one hand, our society considers the university as a necessary step towards the professional future; on the other hand, universities have maintained a persistent prejudice towards vocational training.
Obviously, the university has not yet settled this old but false dichotomy between theory and practice, between knowledge and competence. The Vatel group has long developed its teaching philosophy around the alternation between theoretical education and practical learning, thus combining knowledge and know-how or even better, the knowledge through know-how. In the very short term, it is the way of acquiring knowledge, which has been identical for centuries, who will have to adopt new technologies to gain efficiency and speed.
Objectively, through the last century, nothing has really changed in a classroom, if not the color of the board black front, white today! In order to transfer knowledge in the brains of our students, we have not found anything better than connecting a person who holds knowledge with who is lacking some, according to the principle of preceptorship, namely: a professor facing a small group of students, committed to making them progress at the most appropriate pace. Lue teaches molecular and cellular biology at Harvard.
He practices what is called the Flipped Classroom. The lesson is learned at home or at the library, from documents, videos, case studies or specialized platforms, recommended or made available by the professor. Classes are dedicated to the deepening, the exercises, the exchange, the resolution of the problems encountered by the students. In other words, Robert A. Lue believes that he can spend more time on concepts, which are the most exciting part of the course for his students.
Released from classes, the professor can take care of the problems of each student, follow his progress and help him to understand. The Academy does not adopt technology for technology, but it consolidates achievements, provides quality education and humanizes the classroom.
Generations are assigned mysterious letters to identify them: generation X, Y, Z and soon Alpha generation. Born with computers and social networks, these generations have expectations in terms of learning and employment and schools will have to find the means to satisfy it.
Specifically, the younger generation stands out in two main categories, with Generation Y on one side and Generation Z on the other. While Ys seek to learn in a collaborative network, which is also found in their communication and problem solving skills, the Zs are more technology-oriented, with a focus oriented on face to face communication and problem solving in an entrepreneurial mode. Clearly, what distinguishes these two categories is the fact that seniors have a fairly developed team spirit while the younger ones are more important as leaders.
The next generation, born after , is the Alpha one. This generation will be able to join Vatel schools from Nourished with digital, this generation is born at the same time as the smartphone and the tablet. Their prosthetic link with friends, information or trade, is in hand and the knowledge is just a click away. Step by step, the teaching experience is reversed: learn at home and then do the exercises with professors in class. Knowledge is an asset, a place for creation, imagination, intuition. The Alpha generation is the beginning of a new time.
The principle: the learner enrolls in a course, follows it on video on the web and then he is evaluated to verify that he understood the course and acquired the concepts presented. Who has passed the evaluations of this course the fastest? What are the skills of each student? Its shortcomings? How does he learn?
All this information will help improve the teaching materials and the knowledge of the learners. On the industry side, companies are increasingly using COOCs to teach their employees or their customers. Inspired by this new pedagogical approach, Vatel can imagine creating its own COOC by soliciting its brightest professors and hotel partners, allowing access only to the Vatel students and, finally, validate their achievements in the titles and diplomas it issues.
This term refers to a mixed learning mode: it is no longer a question of separating classroom training and distance learning, but rather of mixing them together. The learner alternates between the two. For example, he can start a training or a distance learning course and then put it into practice with a training module in the presence of the trainer. And so on. It is actually a place where the educational contents are stored and easily accessible. The Learning Management System LMS is a web-based software system that implements online learning platforms where groups of learners can be created and managed.
These platforms typically include a communication system, access control and the administration of groups of learners. To be recruited and then perform well at work, technical skills only are no longer sufficient. Employees and managers must develop, human and relational qualities such as: —— Sense of efficiency: this ability is essential because it allows the company, its team, and itself not only to stay focused, but to keep going in any critical situation and not to lose sight of the essential.
To have a good oral expression, to know how to establish a contact with your interlocutors, to know how to write clear and structured communications. It goes hand in hand with a sense of adaptability, an ability to quickly change what is needed. Be open to change, be able to review a judgment or an opinion. Share your knowledge. It may be innate, but it often requires a good knowledge of the environment in which one evolves.
This creativity must always be linked to a visionary aspect. A huge, complex and exciting project whose nature is to change as society evolves, as neuroscience progresses and as technological advances. But we must not think that the new education systems will be able to reproduce itself identically over several decades because everything goes very fast, way too fast.
We can start by saying that, contrarily to the fantasy conveyed with complacency by some professors and intellectuals, conservative by posture, by principle or by ignorance, the proponents of the digital have no intention to replace the man by the machine, nor of substituting screens for professors. On the other hand, they say that the machine fills some tasks faster and better than the man and that man would better delegate in order to consecrate his intelligence to something else, such as giving reasons to learn, instilling envy, help to project oneself into an individual and collective future, to build meaning.
All this comes from the human and the main motivation of students remains the ability of the professor to arouse the desire to learn. Vatel teaching philosophy must be rigorously preserved in the paradigm shift that the group will have to make in order to maintain one of the top positions in the world in the hotel education of tomorrow.
The alternation between theoretical and practical training must be maintained for a long time, but it will have to integrate the evolution of technological research, neuroscience and the new expectations of young humans as well as the companies that will employ them. The first strong idea is to optimize the harmonious development of technical skills and behavioral skills through the use of educational technological innovations in which present and future generations feel most comfortable and who allow a better individualization of teaching.
The second strong idea is to appropriate the experience and know-how of the first international network of schools, high-level professors and professional partners. Those, being for the most part, former students of our schools. The third idea is to build on already existing structures in the group such as the Academic Council and CirVath; structures that will need to be fleshed out as changes are implemented.
The fifth idea, finally, involves assigning to each of the students enrolled in a Vatel program, in all the schools of the network, a personal and inalienable identity number ID. This unique number will give the student access to all the educational resources according to his year of study and will allow the monitoring of his individual performances during his whole schooling.
Regarding theoretical courses or learning of knowledge The first innovation in this area is the gradual introduction of the flipped classroom model which, it seems to us, is a simple, radical and easy-to-implement way to make courses more attractive while developing, for the student, a capacity for autonomy.
Individually, out of school or in small groups, the student studies the part of the course set in advance by the professor, using educational resources available on the platform. Then, the class is set with the presence of the professor whose objective will be to facilitate the discussion, without dominating it, and to make the necessary contributions on the points of the course badly understood by the students during their solo learning.
The so-called masterly education is thus replaced by interactive teaching which involves the student in his own training and develops new behavioral skills. Overall, the total number of hours in the reference system for teaching a particular subject would thus be divided between a number of hours of individual training and a number of hours of face-to-face training, without necessarily going beyond that. This new organization obviously involves a fairly large provision of educational resources related to Vatel standards.
These resources are available, initially, in French and English, and later in other foreign languages. A negotiation of MOOCs with the institutions that broadcast them will have to be done before they can be added on the platform. The Academic Council suggested to members of the Vatel network faculty, the creation of COOC according to a theme, a sequencing and a precise format so that it fits the pedagogical progression pre-established in the reference systems. CirVath controls their manufacture and then transmits them to the Academic Council for testing, validation and reference before they are posted on the platform.
It is quite conceivable that a COOC dealing with a given subject marketing. Each course will be accompanied by extremely rich complementary resources with links to other courses, texts and videos of references… For an expert, the way of designing a COOC is now similar to the one that allowed people to shoot a movie at the beginning of the cinema, with a fixed camera and the reworking of the theater codes.
Therefore, there is in principle, nothing insurmountable. The Academic Council encourages all professors and research professors in the network to create thematic mini-courses in the form of tutorials, video sequences or software and in a format that does not exceed 15 to 20 minutes. All these mini-courses will be accompanied by exercises designed to validate learning outcomes and will only be posted on the platform once validated and referenced.
But for these educational resources to be a real success, for students and professors alike, alternative evaluation models will have to be combined. Nowadays software can massively correct both online work eg Coursera, Udacity, edX as exam papers, in the form of MCQs or, even better, in the form of dissertation. The principle: a hundred copies must first be corrected by one or more professors in the flesh, then Artificial Intelligence takes over to make the software capable of producing a correction of equivalent quality and almost instantaneously.
Final software development is expected to be successful in the coming months. The work of students in groups through diverse and varied student associations within schools, is also particularly conducive to the development of professional knowledge and the mastery of behavioral skills. Finally, it is interesting to note that the American company Newton, has recently developed a software capable of processing the data collected during the.
This software is already used in the world by several million students and is therefore quite interesting. For practical learning and the acquisition of know-how The practical training as it is currently organized at Vatel, will continue to satisfy all students and companies that hire them. However, new educational resources can strengthen their performance and our younger generations, future students that will join our network.
Some resources that we could provide quite quickly. For the acquisition of skills and behavioral skills In this area, the development of student associations within schools is essential. Finally, software is being developed to identify and qualify the behavioral skills of students such as those mentioned in a previous chapter. These devices actually make possible to map the skills and competences acquired by each student through all of his training, both practical and theoretical. They engage only the author.
They may seem at times utopian, but we are aware that the world of education today is facing a technological tsunami mainly due to the exponential development of Artificial Intelligence that can lead our society towards a transhumanist society where the school would be driven by neuroscience and neuro-education, then everyone can take these ideas into account, as a basis for new thinking, and decide those he can retain and those he can reject.
Then we will only have to set the timetable for their implementation and get started without any delay. In Montenegro the result of the aforementioned expression represents a sort of a trace of the human presence in the durability of natural landscapes and their reproducibility.
This trace is not so much visible in the north, as much as in the central and southern regions of the country, but its consequences can be serious and threatening for the long-term picture of national destination. The fact that significantly improves this way of observing are the forecasts that Montenegro is a relatively new tourist destination and that the constitution of natural terrain is such that it is very difficult to be completely usable, and thereby also able to resist to the aggressive and expressed aspiration of the technological encouraged civilization with highly commercialized social standards, to its essential endangerment.
However, even these benefits must be taken into account with a great caution since the destination is very complex system, which is primarily characterized by cyclical changes and unbreakable connections between structural elements. Consequently, the distortion of only one element leads to the fundamental collapse of national tourism values, and hence affecting the concept of sustainability. One part of this potential, precisely the one dedicated to the wild and untouched natural beauty, has been recognized by the NTO and DMO structures and promoted under the abovementioned slogan, indicating the awareness of local tourism stakeholders of the dimension of tourist offer that excites the greatest attention of the active tourist visitors and adventurers.
Based on the nationally recognized and constructed tourist paragraphs, the idea of promoting the whole country as the resort, in the spiritual and physical sense is generated which is also the subject of this study. Regarding the spatial interaction between the actors of tourism system in this segment, the situation in Montenegro is currently the most critical. National adopted strategies on urban planning and development of tourist sites and regions are still in contradiction with the aspirations and activities of local actors and entities, led by the influence of a strengthened private sector and its growing business interests UNWTO and MSDT, The most commonly consensus is reached in the field of infrastructure projects, the basic preconditions for the initiation and development of tourism.
Additionally, the mass tourism cannot be a model for the expansion of tourism offer in the field of sustainability and protection of natural resources, but the emphasis has already being put towards defining the scope of exploitation based on the receiving or boundary threshold of visitors, similar to other European countries having developed environmental standards.
Model in which the state and the private sector share the absolute mutual agreement and show the greatest degree of social interaction is the question of construction, reconstruction and increasing the number of modern tourist facilities of all categories. It should be noted that the concentration of newly constructed tourist capacities strictly follows the concentration and direction of movement of tourists at the destination level, which creates a large asymmetry unevenness in terms of the total observed spatial development and deeply polarizes the national tourism system EC, Since Montenegro is primarily characterized by massive forms of coastal tourism, the idea of study is to promote some other national values, including the area where the most massive form of tourism as such takes place, i.
Based on these aspects, several innovative guidelines and solutions for future activities in the area of destination marketing will be proposed. Destination tourism product According to the conceptual framework of tourism development Wall and Mathieson, , the relation of components of the tourism system depends on many factors, including demographic elements of the local population sociocultural identity , the components of the natural environment, the potential of the destination in terms of capacity, limitation of accepting the workforce and tourists, etc.
The general demographic indicators of Montenegrin population show the following characteristics: territorial distribution of the population: north - The participation of younger age group in the total population is The total population growth rate is approximately 1. When it comes to basic social indicators, national statistics is somewhat more irregularly updated, and among the multitude of data those from the field of living standards, education, economy and culture are standing out.
The standard indicators show that the trend of poverty of the citizens in the period of — was in the gradual rise MONSTAT, The average net salary also recorded a slight growth trend, while the sectors with the highest growth in net income were the supply of electricity and the professional, scientific and technological activities MONSTAT, The participation of highly educated people in the total population according to the last census in is only 0.
The structure of GDP by sector shows that the lowest share was recorded by the sector of information and communications 4. The same case is with the cultural buildings and program activities. Based on previous trend of reduced number of visitors at the cultural events at the national level is observed NSDS, However, when it comes to analyzing foreign visitors to the cultural events and festivals, there was a counter-trend MSDT, a.
In terms of components of the natural environment, preservation of natural resources is at a very high level when compared to other European countries. Areas covered by forest and vegetation take According to these facts, Montenegro is positioned at the very top of the list. Currently, 7. The special value of tourist destination space constitutes its natural and cultural attractions. When it comes to tourists as users of natural resources, five different segments have been determined: light adventure lovers, adventure enthusiasts, individual researchers, nature lovers and lovers of luxury MSDT, It is not possible to reliably estimate the tourist capacity in terms of carrying capacity, since there are no specific data or plans of spatial development, which specifies the maximum level of development, and consequently the border capacity destination.
Instead of that, we dispose with the data on arrivals and overnight stays of tourists, as well as with the data on the expected total presence at the destination until the year In accordance with aforementioned, the number of tourists in was 1. On the other hand, most of the local tourist organizations recorded less than 0. The above data indicates an exceptional polarization of tourism offer. The expected presence by is over 2 million MSDT, a. On the other hand, it is known the fact that the total number of seasonal engaged working staff at the resort during the summer period unofficially exceeds the number of 20,, which also might be the indicative limitation in terms of acceptance of the labor force EOM, Some of the current types of networking in the field of sustainable tourism through the electronic platform enable small and medium enterprises and regions of Europe to reach a higher level of sustainability and competitiveness Partnerships for Sustainable Development, These small and medium enterprises play a very important role in providing support to the tourism opportunities in the destination Jauhari, It is important to emphasize that the effects on the competitiveness are rapidly changing and that such an intense dynamic of changes creates further challenges, resulting in the need for additional research OECD, The steps towards the definition of strategic direction thorough valorization of natural resources slowly come to true.
According to characteristics of the above mentioned mountain regions as the strategic development directions were selected: ski, ecological and selective forms of tourism—such as adventurous MSDT, Defining the primary and secondary tourist offer fits with spatial categorization of mountainous-tourist zones in the immediate and wider urban environment.
In this way, each of the isolated regions, among which are: northern, central, coastal and the region of Boka Kotorska bay; has certain sub-regions with individual tourist attractions, which can be regarded as the secondary forms of tourism offer. The primary and secondary offer can as well be defined on the basis of the present structural model Figure 1 , although it is necessary to elaborate extensive diversification of individual adventure activities and develop programs of practicing multi-day adventures. These forms of the offer should be further developed, through direct investments on the basis of investment development projects envisaged by the strategy MSDT, a.
For the aforementioned activities providing the adequate sources of financial resources and institutional support is required. Accordingly, the priority tasks would be partial expansion of the portfolio of the tourist products. Figure 1. When defining the market framework of the offer, in accordance with the previously ascertained uneven competitiveness of regions, for the directions of the mountain tourism development three types of tourism are selected, of which two mainly correspond to the concept of sustainability and conservation of natural ecosystems of the mountain tourist region, while the third was allocated as the cultural tourism—according to the tourism potentials.
For the second isolated form, i. The positioning of the aforementioned types of products will be aligned with the positioning of targeted user segments, included in the partition. In the first place there are fans of soft and hard adventure, followed by the nature lovers, lovers of culture and gastronomy, while the last, but not the least are ecologically conscious tourists—i.
The assessment of the material base and the organization includes determining the current situation on the isolated tourist sites in the mountainous hinterland, on the basis of the present structural model, by which further evaluation of the necessary funds for investments in the construction of buildings and facilities planned by strategy will be carried out.
This phase also implies analysis of the impact of macroeconomic indicators and the general social benefits MSDT, Currently, its active implementation is in progress. The analyzed impacts will serve as guidelines in the finalization of the strategic designed concept, on what basis the tourist offer conceptualized on natural potentials will receive its final form.
In this way, the diversification of the tourism product in relation to the regional characteristics of natural resources in Montenegro will be made, and simultaneously will attract the attention of the future visitors.
Tome 2. The alternation between theoretical and practical training must be maintained for a long time, but it will have to integrate the evolution of technological research, neuroscience and the new expectations of young humans as well as the companies that will employ them. For practical learning and the acquisition of know-how The practical training as it is currently organized at Vatel, will continue to satisfy all students and companies that hire them. Poitiers - Futuroscope. Saisons et
The concept of sustainable development Since the capacity of this Planet has already been exceeded a long time ago OECD, , the degree of concern of individual country is also becoming more and more justified. Montenegro, as a small ecological country, with the nationally adopted Declaration in terms of social commitment, and later with the Constitution from , committed itself to a strictly controlled and balanced attitude towards the elements of the environment, and thus assumed great responsibility toward natural resources and the degree of their preservation.
During the transition period, there were many difficulties in implementing decisions and keeping consistent following the concept. These difficulties were caused both by economic and political factors NSDS, Dealing with the consequences of insufficient social responsibility over the past two decades, great efforts and undertaking concrete legal safeguards are required at this moment. In accordance with this, the strict, comprehensive and very precise monitoring of the sustainability indicators at the national level is carried out.
On that occasion, with the support of UNDP, the survey in 13 municipalities in the north was carried out, in which the tourist sample of mountain tourism was tested through the form of questionnaire. By survey the great interest of visitors and tourists for sustainable forms of tourism is confirmed. However, on this occasion it was found that the model of sustainable development as such, exists only in certain isolated localities, and that it was not sufficiently and evenly distributed within the entire tourist offer of this selective form of tourism.
Due to the ascertained lack of interest and insufficient cooperation during the operational phase of the strategy implementation, the construction of institutional strategic framework for sustainable development is necessary. The National Council for Sustainable Development , supported by the NVO sector is in charge for monitoring the efficiency of the state-level governance system, as well as the implementation of priority programs, actions and policies.
The current state of natural resources, including: biodiversity, forests, ecosystem services, water, air, land, environment and health, space and urban development, metals and non-metals, natural and anthropogenic hazards; has been measured using the indicator system NSDS, As the model that fully supports and facilitates evaluation, activity and national monitoring of the sustainability indicators, during the development of NSDS, the logical matrix model, specific for the project task cycle, was applied.
The initiative was launched by the UN at the 47th session Among the latest indicators, indicators from the UN list were found, while in the system of official statistics in Montenegro there are 49 or The more detailed overview of the number, total participation and predicted monitoring dynamics of the identified indicators is given in the table Table 1. The presence of the indicators to the given group or theme is in fact the area to which the indicator primarily relates, while some indicators are also relevant for monitoring measures in other thematic areas NSDS, Table 1.
Overview of the indicators according to participation and dynamics of monitoring. Current state The number of indicators for which there is no alternative to the content in The number of indicators that are monitored by the name and the content in The number of indicators which is planned to be introduced in The number of indicators that are not identified by name and content and whose introduction is not planned by The total number of indicators that will be monitored in Montenegro until The total number of indicators on the UN list.
Future state The total number of indicators that will be monitored in Montenegro until The total number of indicators that will be monitored in Montenegro until The total number of indicators that will be monitored in Montenegro until Adapted from: NSDS, In addition to the indicators from the UN list, the NSDS includes national, international and complex indicators, grouped according to priority themes in accordance with the national circumstances and specificity of the monitoring needs. The national indicators serve as the complement to more complete national reporting and are compatible, but do not represent alternatives to the UN indicators.
The international indicators are an instrument of reporting to international organizations on procedures and processes in Montenegro, and are also not an alternative to the UN indicators. Organization WHO. This would significantly reduce the possibility of making and repeating errors from the previous period. Sustainable development concept also means fine balancing of the economic, social and ecological standards with the aim of providing prosperous, comfortable environment for the current, as well as building sound foundation for the future generations.
It means preservation and improvement of the available resources, their wise management and consideration of vast possibilities. This concept is applied in areas where an extremely high intensity of tourist activity is not necessarily in compliance to the environmental protection, as well as the dose of induced social stress within the modified living space or environment Weaver, Consideration of the possible aspects of the sustainable development within an ecologically oriented Mediterranean country shows that the long-term platform for boosting the tourist progress that will not be accompanied by difficulties caused by massive forms of tourism is established.
And this part is certainly of crucial importance for achieving the naturally balanced sustainable development. And indeed, most of the tourists are visiting Montenegro for the reasons mentioned above. In addition to this type of vacation, they were offered a holiday in the countryside, as well as some of the active holidays of the adventurous type. For this reason, some of the promotional marketing campaigns in the past years could be mentioned, which were conducted in order to improve the overall picture of the national brand. Among them were the following:.
Table 2. Summary of the promotional campaign of the national tourism brand. Target market Regional Campaign name Sea calling-Montenegro i. It can be concluded that it is necessary to promote the national brand awareness at the international level. Accordingly, the unique prism of identity can be used for harmonization of the structural components at a high level and the provision of adequate alternative. What the prism contains is the physical information about the tangible attributes of the national destination natural landscapes, cultural heritage, climate conditions ; temperament of the domicile population hospitality, friendly confrontation, relaxation ; spiritual values integrity, family values, pride, respect for history ; internal picture intact, diversity of small and modest offer ; reflection rest, research ; and social aspects safety, nobility.
Some of the solutions offered should satisfy the defined tourist segments by strategy in terms of what they know, think and decide on the final choice MSDT, a. The emphasis should again be placed on the available natural resources as the authentic tourist resource, but with the special emphasis on the tendency towards returning to the primordial state before the beginning of massive use.
This certainly implies taking into account the definition of precise limits of destination acceptance, which must be the leading thought or association of potential tourists when reading the new promotional slogan.
In this its driving force and meaning is reflected. Among the mandatory nuances would be: red as a symbol of nationality , yellow association of light and sun and blue dominant color of the Adriatic coast. Conclusion and future perspectives Due to its climate, natural resources, and geographical position, Montenegro is an ideal area for the implementation of the concept of sustainable development.
Natural diversity is supported by the fact that Montenegro is among the European countries that have the highest number of living species per area and it hosts numerous endemic species. By using the latest indicator system, the greater efficiency of social activity and compliance of actions of tourism entities in the direction of the final realization of the long-standing active process of establishing the well-organized destination system is achieved, primarily characterized by the sustainability of the available natural wealth.
The tourism products that Montenegro could count on in the future are divided into several levels of priority. The first level priority would be the products of interest for investment and development. Priority of the second level would be products for selective investment and management, while the third-level priorities would be exclusively products related to destination management. The main criteria that should be respected in defining priorities would be the proportionate market size of the corresponding segment.
According to the mentioned criterion, the tourism products which should be especially emphasized and on the basis of which Montenegro can become particularly competitive are: 1 adventure, 2 nature and rural tourism, and 3 tours and culture. These products have high development potential, as well as the current state above average development, which is in absolute harmony with the basic motive of visiting tourists—relaxation. Adventures should be further differentiated through the wide range of adventurous activities, which emphasize the active and self-determining participation of visitors as the current global trend.
The rural tourism product can be developed through organized promotion and enrichment of the unique cultural offer, the usual attractions and manifestations. In the case of cultural tours, the special form of experience would be an organized trip and a tour of representative or main tourist attractions of Montenegro with the greatest potential for attracting tourists. This kind of experience contributes to the strengthening of the educational component and the ecological awareness of visitors, which is crucial for the country of prominent ecological commitment.
Brussels, BEL, November. WALL G. Lorena P. Valerio is a corporate trainer, facilitator, speaker, and a certified hospitality educator CHE. She also had presented her two researches on customer service and loyalty topics in the 2nd and 3rd National Business Management Conferences. These experiences must be captured real-time or instantaneous using systems, tools, applications, and devices, which customers are using i. Gone are the days when organizations compete based on product quality or price. Facebook, Twitter, or Instagram even before the company can address the complaint.
With this is issue, getting instant assessment or real-time feedback from customers is gaining importance. Instantaneous consumer assessment is becoming a trend since the Internet has become a two-way communication tool, which gives customer voice Harvey To date, only few researches on instantaneous customer assessment ICA concerning the hospitality industry, have been put together to highlight more of its importance to customers, its ripple effect to the business. The theory of value co-creation is the collaboration between customers and businesses, which often mediated by technology, which leads to 1 innovation, 2 customer engagement CE and 3 better customer services.
The objective of this paper is to present the importance of applying the ICA process, how it affects customer satisfaction, the benefits to the organizations that are already currently using the process and how it impacted the business. The author supported the journal and articles reviews with current practices of different hotels, concerning instantaneous customer assessment ICA. Keywords: Customer service, customer experience, instantaneous customer assessment ICA , marketing, on-line review, real-time feedback, customer surveys.
Previous researches have presented that customer feedback techniques, such as customer comment cards, are extensively applied but have met with inadequate success in terms of delivering an in-depth understanding of customer needs, wants, and expectations to help management in the its decision making process Hemmington ; Soderlund; Voss et al. With this is issue, getting realtime feedback or instant assessment from customers is gaining importance, it is becoming a trend since the Internet has become a two-way communication tool, which gives customer voice Harvey This paper defines instantaneous as real-time, instant, or immediate.
Assessment is defined as feedback or review. The author of this paper coined ICA as instantaneous customer assessment. The implementation of ICA instead of using the traditional way of getting customer satisfaction feedback, i. These activities take time and simply give the common issues around customer satisfaction, instead of helping businesses know when particular customers are unhappy and what actions should be dome immediately to minimize the impact of dissatisfaction Denne Research shows that customer emotions become long lasting with time. Sampson study states the company-solicited feedback through the use of tools such as surveys and focus groups that allow customers to give their judgment about the experienced product or service.
Traditional Methods of Gathering Customer Assessment Long Range System article, discuss the problems with traditional methods of gathering customer feedback such as telephone surveys, paper comment cards, online survey links, which have low response rates. Comment cards are a thing of the past, especially for the guest segments for who smartphones are just a normal way of life Brandau Customers see paper comment cards as oldfashioned and tedious.
One common problem posed by those methods is that, because the response rates are low and it is not a representative sample. Another issue with these traditional methods is the manual inputting of data in creating a database Long Range System The same issue with the use of secret shoppers, or mystery shoppers, to gather feedback. Data volume can be low, biased and not representative of the regular customer experience. Personal bias can affect results so that validity can be questionable Upfront Analytics Social media, like Yelp surpassed million web users per month or Facebook 1.
The organization is simply left in damage-control mode. But a much better move would be to keep the damage from occurring in the first place if there are tools on how to instantly get customer feedback or assessment. Another disadvantage of the traditional customer feedback systems is that companies do not encourage customers to give instant, on-the-spot assessments and allow days or weeks to pass by, to get feedback.
With instant customer assessment, customers are inclined to give more focused, up to date, relevant, and honest assessments when they are experiencing or newly experienced the products or services or issues at hand rather than waiting for a long period of time, when customers memories of service experience could have forgotten. The advantage of giving customers opportunity to provide instant, on-the-spot, real-time assessments, helps to quickly resolve issues between customers and companies Shi Marketers, before creating products and services study the target buyers through market research.
Customer assessment can give an insight whether the company is doing things right Robinson Valuing customer assessment make the customers feel they are being heard and their voices are important in receiving better service in the future. Therefore, customers can communicate with service providers from product design up to the delivery or consumption of products and services. This shows an interactive process of learning thereby creating value together have the opportunity to create value through tailored, co-produced products and services Ballantyne Value co-creation is enhanced through the partnership between the company and the customer Wieland, Polese, Vargo, and Lusch ; Ramaswamy The introduction of new technologies has empowered an intensified capability to channel consumer assessment into the product or service development process.
According to Facebook, Inc. With that, technology including the Internet has brought remarkable competition by giving customers opportunity to view prices and availability of product and services, throughout many diverse markets Sviokla including customer online reviews. The said system helps in managing the instant customer assessment of more than AccorHotels guests Verma Assessment provided by customers could be priceless, in the real-time world of the Internet, since it paved the way for the organization to resolve complaints before they can become a setback for the company and give the competitors the chance to steal an unhappy customer Vrbanac The explosion of guest feedback or customer assessment can be incredibly valuable to anyone in the hospitality industry, but reacting quickly can be a challenge because of the growing volume of reviews.
In a recent test made by DropThought for three restaurants, negative reviews on Yelp dropped between 8 percent and 17 percent in the eight months over a 16 month period, when instant feedback mechanism was introduced as compared to the eight months before without the using the instant feedback. A one-star improvement in Yelp ratings translates to a 5 to 9 percent revenue increase, according to research conducted by Dr Michael Luca, assistant professor of business administration at Harvard Business School.
The key is for organizations to able to interact closely and instantly with their customers. Managers get instant alerts on customer assessments, which may be positive or negative, through a mobile app. Businesses can also view customer feedback and trends in real-time from anywhere on their DropThought web dashboard Marketing Weekly News , pp.
The founders MindShare believe that technology specifically mobile devices could bring more and better customer feedback, quicker almost instantly and throughout all levels of an organization. Through technology, the organization leverages its existing processes to generate assessment from customers, respond to their issues CRM Magazine November Innovation The classification of innovations, according to Hjalager , is divided into the following categories: product innovations, process innovations management innovations innovation related to human resources, i.
Today, companies understand that innovation is a must to keep up with the competing arena of customer service-focused industries Camarinha-Matos The competition does not only copy each new innovation but also add some improvement. According to Yeniyurt, Henke, and Yalcinkaya psychology research shows that people tend to be more engaged when they feel that their contribution will be acknowledged.
The increasing popularity of Web 2. With this, the companies respond by innovating their business models to better engage with customers and use it as their competitive advantage. Research on customer engagement as a form of customer management is increasing Verhoef et al. According to Robinson , in the order of valued customer behavior, satisfied and repeat customers are good and customers who endorse and support your brand may be better, but customers who provide feedback to improve or create potential value for the organization which boosts its competitive advantage may be the best, since these customers can assist the company uncover problems in products and services.
Implementing an instant feedback mechanism will make it easier for these customers engage with the company. If the company engages the customers, they can be the best overseers of the performance of its products and services, which leads to better customer relationship management system Sviokla ICA For Better Customer Services The theory of value co-creation when considered helps organizations create better results in terms of customer satisfaction. Since the voice of the customers are heard and given importance, the organizations have the opportunity to design their products and services to the needs and expectations of their customers resulting to customer satisfaction.
Ensuring that the ICA company system has built-in real-time reporting and analysis with the objective of gaining insight into the wants and the needs of the customers CRM Magazine November The majority of unsolicited feedback is spoken to the front-line employees. Hotel guests or restaurant customer may give their real-time feedback, i. ICA, during their stay in the hotel or while consuming their food in the restaurant. Van der Heijden, Schepers, Nijssen, and Ordanini , study found that numerous face-to-face interactions with customers provide front-line service staff with opportunity to capture customer reactions, feedback, improve internal processes, and implement service recovery by quickly resolving complaints.
Aside from being the recipient of unsolicited feedback, front-line employees are the means of engaging customers to give their instant assessment using service encounter. Modern digital tools are utilized to listen more closely to consumers real-time. From a production perspective Co-Producer: The customer participates as co-producer in the joint production process. From a value-creation perspective, there are two types of interactions: direct and indirect. From a value creation perspective, real value is created in the Joint Sphere of value creation process. A direct interaction is the process by company Provider through its personnel, system, and service interacts or collaborates directly with the customers.
And one of the best ways to directly interact with the customer is through the application of the ICA concept. Indirect interaction on the other hand, is when customer utilizes product and services of the company without the presence personnel, processes, or systems, direct collaboration with company. As highlighted in Lacey study, customers inputs play a vital in service quality control and it is important in assisting company understand better the needs and expectations of customers.
Given that these sources comprise different fields, the author filtered the publications and articles and use only hospitality, tourism, or service industry related literature. In the course of reviewing related literatures, the author came across the theory on value creation, and value co-creation. The author started searching for publications on this domain. The author found the theory of value co-creation by Galvagno and Dalli appropriate in presenting the related literatures.
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