Die Republikaner - Entstehung, Parteiprogramme, Wähler und Anhänger (German Edition)

Racial Exclusionism in the New Germany
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watch He wants nominations to be wrapped up soon, seeking to prevent further erosion of public confidence in the EU amid Brexit uncertainty and intra-bloc divisions over managing migration. The task will not be easy. The appointments must take into account political affiliation, geography - balancing east and west, north and south - population size and gender.

The leaders of EU institutions are supposed to impartially represent the interests of all member nations on the global stage and in Brussels. But patriotism sets in as officials from individual member countries push candidates from their homelands to rule the roost of the bloc's population of million and the world's biggest economic alliance. There was hope at the leaders' June summit that more time would bring views closer over who will replace Juncker at the commission.

Macron has suggested Weber lacks the political and government experience for such a high-profile role. Weber could still be considered for the head of the European Parliament which is the EU's only elected institution. The Bacon and Kimosas Edition. And here comes the most mysterious thing: Merkel 's registration says KEK.

What's up with the shaking? I'm so glad I watched that video. Makes me feel,more comfortable about the world. Cattle prod them until they use the soap. We will intervene and invade Europe to save them. Merkel shaking reminded me of a song. Rock steady crew. There's a new headline there's a new sensation.

Everybody talking, about the situation. They claim it's a minor congenital issue, but it looks like a severe existential case of FUD Fear, Uncertainty, Doubt that likely chases away sleep every night and forces her to turn to medications which do not really fill the gap left by a lack of healthy, natural sleep.

What is the German take on the Merkel shakes? How dare orange man be so bad!!! Speaking at the G20 summit in Osaka, she said she was convinced that "this reaction will disappear just as it has arisen", German news agency DPA said. Asked what lay behind it and whether she had seen a doctor, she said she had "nothing in particular to report".

On Thursday she was seen shaking for two minutes at a ceremony in Berlin. The chancellor, who turns 65 next month, gripped her arms until she became steadier. She was offered a glass of water but did not drink it. The previous incident - which she later blamed on dehydration - saw her shaking while standing next to Ukraine's President Volodymyr Zelensky in hot sunshine.

In she had an earlier bout of shaking in hot weather on a visit to Mexico as she was attending a military honours ceremony. Reports said that subsequent medical checks had found nothing to be wrong. Government spokesman Steffen Seibert tweeted a video of her making a speech covering topics such as extremism, women's empowerment and climate change.

It showed her standing and speaking in a relaxed manner. Mrs Merkel is now in her fourth term as chancellor, a role she began in November She has said she will leave politics when her current term ends in She has a reputation for remarkable stamina - during intensive late-night discussions at EU summits, for example. She has been in good health while in office, and even worked from home after a knee operation in ; she suffered a fall while skiing in Her absences were only brief on those occasions.

Her mother died earlier this year. Per Barr, Huber is finishing up his investigation into the Clinton Foundation, and they should soon be able to bring that to fruition. What else can that mean but money laundering, sex crimes against children? I think the dem debates were sort of a marker for Trump too. Theeeeeeen drop the fucking hammer on their heads. Timing is important but my god we are close.

Internationally, what strings still need to be cut? Human trafficking rings being taken down all over the world. CEO's stepping down, celebrities running for the hills, media totally discredited. I mean, look around. There is nothing holding us back anymore. Wow - so fucking systematic, so planned. Adress adds up to 6 and is the same as the Freemason Illuminati Diamond hadsigh the cabal makes..

Think Merkel handsign. THese shills must be Merkel s commies not knowing shit about latitude…. Heard Merkel got those shakes again.

Will a private company count on the EU having their six when the US comes calling? They're fucked if the US comes calling over terrorism or human trafficking links with the US military to back it up. Also, Trump suggested the other day countries should pay for their own security in the Hormuz. Warning salvo was already unleashed. Another angle is; the US could also as easily blockade the Hormuz as it does protect it. How does the the oil get out? Guessing here the EU is throwing a bone to Iran because Iran has the goods on the corruption involved in the Iran deal.

This scenario was the basis of Q's 'pickle' drop and Merkel was the player in the 'pickle', I believe. Where are the old globalists, who worked to marginalize President Trump? In the group photograph Macron, May, Trudeau, and Merkel are moving towards the margins, the left edge, the right edge, moving towards the back row.

When weak and defeated are among the strong and powerful they begin to "linger" at the edges of the powerful You can almost "smell" their weakness just by viewing them "among" the truly powerful in the world. Xi looks "defeated". May and Merkel seem totally "out of place" amongst this group. No one approaches them Now look at the President and Putin The true powers now feeling their strength You can "hear" Democratic Heads exploding heads all over the world.

You can see it, feel it, The look on their faces: May, Xi, Merkel They know Their's a new lead dog in town On a side note: Can anyone even imagine any of those "idiots" on the debate stage being among that group? Could you even imagine what Mooch would be wearing? Pray for our President.

He's well on the way to saving the World. She's also brought up in the same "family," blood related or not, as Merkel The image was lined up wrong on purpose, to distract from the truth in it. May is at the far left in the top row. I checked the childhood images at the time, best I could find, and that one is the match.

The world is learning many truths. Vladimir Putin has boasted that liberalism in Europe and the US has 'outlived its purpose' and called the decision to allow millions of migrants into the EU a 'cardinal mistake' as the G20 summit in Osaka began today with the Russian President sharing warm words with Donald Trump. The Moscow leader criticised Western views on gay rights, immigration and multiculturalism - which he claimed were an attack on 'traditional family values'.

In an interview with the Financial Times, Mr Putin said 'the liberal idea' was on its way out as the public turned its back on these issues. And he claimed German chancellor Angela Merkel made a 'cardinal mistake' in her decision to allow a million refugees into the country. He said: '[Liberals] cannot simply dictate anything to anyone just like they have been attempting to do over the recent decades.

That migrants can kill, plunder and rape with impunity because their rights as migrants have to be protected. The liberal idea has become obsolete. It has come into conflict with the interests of the overwhelming majority of the population. Neither Merkel nor May looked comfy….

Merkel holding her hands together firmly. Wish Melania was there. The first is the most important. That way you are able to increase taxes, and this will produce more poverty. That way you are able to create a police state 5 Welfare - Take control of every aspect of their lives. Food, Housing, and Income 6 Education - Take control of what people read and listen to us" take control of what children learn in school. This will cause more discontent and it will be easier to take Tax the wealthy with the support of the poor.

Federal Government Must Be Exposed" "The whole world has watched Merkel , Macron and May destroy Europe by stealthily implementing the globalist scheme to remove national borders throughout the Eurozone. Nation and after nation has fallen prey to this secret plot to transform the European Union EU into a totalitarian communist superstate. Mexico to the south and Canada to the north are both playing integral roles in the systematic destruction of America's national sovereignty and territorial integrity The EU government even went so far as to demand offending nations terminate all border controls.

The daily invasion of illegal aliens is worse than ever and still getting more out of control by the month. Even a seemingly determined President Trump has been unable to build his promised wall or shut down the caravans that are streaming into the USA at will. Liberalism had its day - Putin G20 Putin attacks Western views on gay rights and multiculturalism and says immigrants are free to 'kill, plunder and rape with impunity because their rights are protected' ahead of G20 meeting with May.

Russian president gloated that western Liberalism 'had outlived its purpose' and 'was on way the out' of favour Putin blasted Angela Merkel 's 'cardinal mistake' of allowed in a million refugees to enter German in He said: 'This liberal idea presupposes that nothing needs to be done. That migrants can kill, plunder and rape with impunity because their rights as migrants have to be protected' He was speaking at the start of the G20 summit in Osaka, Japan, where he will meet Theresa May later Prime Minister will demand he takes responsibility for Salisbury poisoning and hand over Novichok assassins He said: 'This spy story, as we say, it is not worth five kopecks.

POTUS sees everything little thing. He's most definitely an observer.

She's not even really worth it. She sucks and she's a slob. Chancellor Angela Merkel and I just discussed ways to counter the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the threats posed by North Korea and Iran. Man this gets dumber by the minute…. Trump at G20 underway in Japan. Eyes on. Trump calls Merkel a good friend that he's glad to have.

He spoke on numerous issues at length, which we have broken down here by topic. Liberal Governments On the eve of the G20 summit, Putin said that the "liberal idea" had "outlived its purpose" as the public has turned against immigration and multiculturalism.

Putin said: "[Liberals] cannot simply dictate anything to anyone just like they have been attempting to do over the recent decades. Putin said: "This liberal idea presupposes that nothing needs to be done. Every crime must have its punishment. They play God in the name of "science. Patrick Soon-Shiong and that is why they act strange with spasms and shakes. Posted this thread a few months ago. It tells the previously unknown story, in detail, about why HRC, Pelosi, and now I suspect Merkel , have been seen acting so strange — with unexplainable spasms and shakes.

I was friends with them during this time, so I was around to witness a lot of it. And then they met Patrick Soon-Shiong, and everything went to a whole new level. They are trying to unlock the fountain of youth. They are trying to enhance themselves.

Schlagwort: 2. Weltkrieg

Based on some of what I was told by her own daughter and from other top Democratic party figures who shared inside info with me at the time, — There is perhaps no more arrogant posture that can be taken here on earth than what quasi-intellectuals such as many of the top Democratic party leadership figures have arrogantly started to assume as they play God in the name of "science.

Merkel 's reaction was weird enough, I honestly think its because her latest shake rattle and roll episodes are blamed on dehydration. German AF experienced a lot of 'difficulties' lately…but seemingly only when transporting politicians to other countries….

Few thoughts about water and Merkel. Merkel 's recent jitter and shake episodes were blamed on dehydration. Trump moving the water away could be one of those business negotiation power moves. Follow the water. What if there was something dangerous about that water and SS was on top of it? Tick-tock, Angie Merkel. Video showed Mrs Merkel , 64, gripping her arms as her body was shaking on Thursday. After about two minutes, she looked steadier and shook hands with the new justice minister.

She was offered a glass of water, but did not drink it. Mrs Merkel had blamed the previous incident on dehydration. She later set off for the G20 summit in Japan as planned at lunchtime. The federal chancellor is fine," spokesman Steffen Seibert said. She said she had felt revived after drinking some water. On Thursday she attended Ms Lambrecht's inauguration briefly in parliament - the Bundestag - then left. On Wednesday, Mrs Merkel appeared to be her usual self in the Bundestag during an hour-long debate, and later gave a speech at Berlin's Humboldt University.

Government sources told German media there was nothing to worry about and, as she left for Osaka, her spokesman tweeted that she had "numerous bilateral talks planned with other heads of state and government". However, Mrs Merkel did have an earlier bout of shaking in hot weather on a visit to Mexico in , as she was attending a military honours ceremony. She was given thorough medical checks and nothing was found to be wrong, reports said. There was no evidence, for example, of Parkinson's disease, for which uncontrollable tremors are a symptom. Asked by the Focus website what might be wrong this time, leading Bavarian GP Jakob Berger said she would need to be checked out as soon as possible.

He ruled out Parkinson's disease, as the trembling had been too pronounced. But he said "if she were my patient, I would definitely clarify the symptoms before the trip to Japan ". Another health specialist, Dr Christoph Specht, told German media that the chancellor may have contracted an infection, as shivering indicated an infection that was flaring up again. An infection was potentially the cause of something else, he said, and Mrs Merkel would need to be checked out.

What medical care does Merkel have? The chancellor does not have a personal doctor, DPA reports, but she does have easy access to top medical care. A government spokesman refused to comment on any care she may have had, but it is likely she will have access to medical care on her trip to Japan, as a foreign ministry doctor always accompanies German delegations on major overseas visits. Mrs Merkel is now in her fourth term as chancellor, a role she first began in November If she were found unable to fulfil her duties, Vice Chancellor Olaf Scholz would step in.

She is Germany's third-longest serving post-war chancellor. The record was set by her centre-right Christian Democrat predecessor, Helmut Kohl more than 16 years , and the second longest-serving chancellor was Konrad Adenauer more than 14 years. She understands P A I N is coming.. Yes, let's shake on it. That's what I needed today. Thank you Boss! The air force said they have a cunning plan to make sure there won't be another fiasco when Angela Merkel flies again this week.

That's for killing him! I mean, I'm very thirsty. Ah, shit…whatevs. And she has a deep conflict with her self about it. Refugee camps in Greece are run by Jews!! The refugee camps in Greece are run by Jews largely unnoticed and not considered! That goes so far that refugees are instructed exactly how and where most of the money is to be found! But even Israel is rigorously sealing itself off and taking in zero - not a single refugee!

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What you don't read in the western media, but in the Israeli media. For whether this fact of the organisation of the "refugee streams" to Europe by Israel, which the Federal Government knows of with percent certainty, has been carefully kept under wraps until now, Merkel 's lies that the immigrants are "war refugees", gain an almost historical dimension: Merkel , the multiple award-winner of Jewish organizations such as the powerful B'nai B'rith Order, knows perfectly well that these are not war refugees, as she brazenly and repeatedly lied to her people, but Muslim invaders who fulfil the NWO's also a Jewish project mission of abolishing the genocide of the German and other European peoples.

Let's move that from the standpoint of efficacy. Or "No … it's from? Come on in" Trump: To Press "thank you very much" now get the hell out geez Merkel 's face at would like to play poker with her. I Think Not Edition. Parkinson's disease isn't 'inherited'. Well, Merkel has been "on camera" many times but haven't seen her trembling in her shoes until recently so…whatever! Merkel is now at home and resting well after her "dehydration" episode!! Merkel Hitler version 2 is busy shaking again. This time indoors, climate controlled, and she refuses water.

It is not dehydration. Angela Merkel shakes again during official ceremony Concerns for German Chancellor Angela Merkel 's health grow once more as she was filmed struggling to keep her composure and visibly shaking during an official ceremony for the second time this month, RT. The incident happened during the formal appointing of the new justice minister in Berlin's Bellevue Palace on Thursday morning. The chancellor began shaking while standing next to German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier, who was delivering a speech.

The shaking stopped and resumed several times. Merkel was visibly distraught and placed both hands on her chest, trying to control herself. Nevertheless, she continued with the ceremony, and later shook hands, smiled, and posed for photos with other officials. At one point, the chancellor was offered a glass of water. Adrenal-chrome withdraw symptoms!

Fla cover up. Update: Reported Dead. Never had diabetis. Now has life-threatening diabetic condition. More likely is that the water was specially prepared for her medical needs. Having medicine in the water. Trump might know that Merkel needs constant medication and therefore, he ordered the water to be taken away, to stress her. And maybe the water is indeed only vodka, who knows? Maybe Merkel has Parkinson's. The incident, which lasted around two minutes, occurred as Merkel stood alongside President Frank-Walter Steinmeier at an early-morning indoor event where Germany's new justice minister was being formally appointed.

Merkel folded her arms across her chest while her body visibly shook, and was handed a glass of water but rejected it. She appeared fine when she arrived in parliament half an hour later. Merkel is due to set off for Japan later Thursday for the annual summit of the Group of 20 global powers. Her spokesman, Steffen Seibert, told news agency dpa that "everything is going ahead as planned. The chancellor is fine. It is not publicly known if Merkel has any health problems. German privacy laws are very strict on that type of information.

On Tuesday last week, Merkel 's whole body shook as she stood outside in hot weather alongside Ukraine's president. Merkel said afterward that she was fine after drinking three glasses of water, which she "apparently needed. The year-old Merkel has been German leader since Last week, dpa reported that Merkel had previously been seen shaking under similar circumstances in the hot sun. It did not give a date for that incident, but said it was also ascribed to Merkel not drinking enough water.

However, the chancellor has a reputation for stamina garnered in years of late-night domestic and European negotiating marathons. On Wednesday, she was on her feet in public for around two hours - first answering lawmakers' questions in parliament, then giving a speech across town. There was no sign then of any health issues. Merkel has rarely had to cut back her work schedule significantly - though she did so for a few weeks in when she cracked her pelvis while cross-country skiing in Switzerland during a winter vacation. Merkel said last year that she won't seek a fifth term as chancellor and won't seek any other political job after her current term ends in She gave up the leadership of her center-right party after a pair of poor state election performances that followed a rocky start to her fourth-term government.

She has shown no sign since of wanting to give up the chancellorship before her term is up. Merkel shaking again! Good work anon. Here are some highlights from last night's debate. All good? Inherited from Daddy Hitler. Actor Michael J Fox has Parkinsons. He used to hide it when acting by being constantly in motion. Notice how Merkel clasps her hands with arms across her body to control the shaking. She's fucked! Very few know she did not write the Merkel plan allowing the Afro chaps in - it was 3 Americans who did it for her.

Merkel is shaking again It's Parkinson. No shit about being dehydrated or whatever. Are Hillary and Merkel related? Every time Merkel shakes you have to take a hit of pot. Normally a person this ill, would step back from office. But not her. This can't be her decision alone, because why would the press and the whole government be silent about this and carry on the lie about "dehydration"?

Some people higher up than Merkel don't seem to have someone else, who could do Merkel 's job…. All seems to be better, when moving, but when forced to stand still, the tremor seems to kick in. Who knows? But: Merkel is not healthy and gov and MSM are trying to lie about it. Merkel trembling again! Vid from today. Nonetheless she will travel to G MSM is playing it down. A lot of darkened vids on German MSM, making it harder to see, how much she's trembling. Last time the public was told, she was dehydrated.

This time an aide comes with a glass of water, but Merkel refuses. Maybe she's afraid of taking the glass and drinking from it, because it would show to the cameras how much she's trembling. I think we need someone to post about Merkel shaking. Harry Hogan's campaign donations. Merkel , 64, was attending a farewell ceremony for Justice Minister Katarina Barley, who is leaving to become a lawmaker in the European Parliament. The spokesman said Merkel would take part later in the swearing-in of the new justice minister. On June 18, Merkel was also seen shaking when she met visiting Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy but later said she felt better after drinking some water.

Berlin is in the throes of a heatwave. Asked if the chancellor would take part in this weekend's G20 meeting in Japan, the spokesman said: "Everything is taking place as planned. The chancellor is well. The chancellor faces a grueling schedule in the coming days. Later on Thursday, she flies to Japan for the G20 meeting before heading to Brussels for an EU summit on Sunday at which she will play a key role in trying to seal a deal on the distribution of the bloc's top jobs for the next five years.

Her spokesman said she would set off for Japan as planned at lunchtime. Merkel shut down German nukes after Fukushima. Aside from the people necessary for a proper shutdown Takes year, I think , where did all the other Nuke employees and students go? Also, Greens rising in numbers in Germany. I think the Fridays for Future movement is being pushed in schools.

Greens now first or close second strongest party and will impact industry. German industry joined at hip to government. Industry guys looking at Green threat and on the losing end trying to deal with Trump's finance boys. Don't think Merkel can deliver the goods. This will get ugly. Too much of a stretch?

Merkel shakes again! The brief incident happened as Merkel stood alongside President Frank-Walter Steinmeier at an early-morning indoor event where Germany's new justice minister was being formally appointed. Merkel was handed a glass of water but rejected it, and appeared fine when she arrived in parliament half an hour later. Merkel was due to set off for Japan later Thursday for the annual summit of the Group of 20 global powers. Reveals the extreme weakness and cowardice of people who nurse from an evil tit.

German Chancellor Angela Merkel appeared shaky again as she attended an official ceremony to appoint a new justice minister in Berlin on Thursday. Standing alongside President Frank-Walter Steinmeier in Schloss Bellevue, the president's official residence, Angela Merkel was filmed holding her arms across her chest, while her legs appeared to be trembling visibly. You can see it past the minute mark in the video below. Looks like it might be Merkel s way out too. Hillary in 2nd state. Pelosi looking like stage 2.

Merkel stage 1. In the first ambulant stage, the infected individual may exhibit unsteady stance and gait, decreased muscle control, tremors, difficulty pronouncing words dysarthria , and titubation. This stage is named the ambulant because the individual is still able to walk around despite symptoms. Furthermore, the individual shows signs of emotional instability and depression, yet exhibits uncontrolled and sporadic laughter. Despite the other neurological symptoms, tendon reflexes are still intact at this stage of the disease.

New symptoms also emerge: the individual develops dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, which can lead to severe malnutrition. They may also become incontinent, lose the ability or will to speak and become unresponsive to their surroundings, despite maintaining consciousness. An infected person usually dies within three months to two years after the first terminal stage symptoms, often because of pneumonia or infection.

Me Llamo Cory. Puedo por favor chuparte la polla? The Democrats are trying to carry out the Kalergi Plan, simple stuff. Dump follows: Know your foe! U decades later.

Macron will Frankreich „transformieren“ – ob Frankreich das will, ist mehr als zweifelhaft

He was the first recipient of the Charlemagne Prize, awarded to those who advance the cause of unifying Europe under one government. Understand and learn what you can about him and his disciples. In his book Pan-Europa he specifically mentions European genocide via mass migration and creation of a new subservient race that, thanks to malgenics programs, would be too stupid to understand that they are being manipulated. The quote goes like this: "We intend to turn Europe into a mixed race of Asians and Negros, ruled over by the Jews.

It reveals the E. He does not pussyfoot around his plans, so be aware before reading it. Both books were published in Richard Nikolaus Coudenhove-Kalergi! The predecessor of villains like Clinton, Merkel , Macron, and Soros. The father of the "genocide through integration" plan, he dreamed of unifying Europe by exterminating its native peoples via forced integration with migrants of incompatible, violent cultures! Press pool clarification POTUS "Pasture" comments were specifically about Senators Corker and Flake "There's been some confusion over who the president was talking about this morning when he mentioned some senator, senators who've passed on to greener pastures, or not so greener pastures.

Some people in the media are speculating he was talking about Senator McCain. That's absolutely ridiculous. He was talking specifically about Senators Corker and Flake. June 28 a. He literally said he's not a puppet. Try again. Merkel 's dad was only the power behind this institutions coming out party.

The Christian world said no and their govts had to go along. Brzezinski's modern reality of it being far easier for world leaders to kill a million people rather than to convince them to do what they want wasn't in play yet back then. Majority still ruled. Merkel is irrelevant since she is clearly a Jew agent and floods the country with Arabs. Christianity has done nothing to prevent this hell we are in but rather aided in it's construction.

Brezinsky and his quote don't measure up when considering Vietnam, Iraq and countless other wars including the drumbeat for war with Iran. Merkel always has her hands in the reverse position as if she is forced to do so but she's evil as hell imo. Macron wants to protect his agriculture from the products of the Mercosur states. G Are Trump and Abe interested in a Mercosur deal? The basic agenda in Japan follows: Official welcome and family photo session. Four working group sessions. Two side events.

G20 presidency press conference. Closing session Ivanka Trump will attend both and keynote one of the Women's Empowerment events. He'll have a full schedule the evening on July 29th, and then the following day, Sunday, June 30th. Public Choice 3—4 : — Beck, U. Risikogesellschaft: Auf dem Weg in eine andere Moderne. Frankfurt a. Benoit, K. Party policy in modern democracies. London: Routledge.

Politische Vierteljahresschrift 49 2 : — Baden-Baden: Nomos. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag. Debus, und J. Estimating policy positions of political actors across countries and Ttme. Burkhart, S. Politische Vierteljahresschrift 46 1 : 14— Campbell, A. Converse, W. Miller, und D. The American voter. New York: Wiley. Government formation and policy formulation in the German states.

Regional and Federal Studies 19 1 : 73— De Swaan, A. Coalition theories and cabinet formations: A study of formal theories of coalition formation applied to nine European parliaments after Amsterdam: Elsevier. Debus, M. Pre-electoral alliances, coalition rejections, and multiparty governments. Pre-electoral commitments and government formation. Public Choice 1—2 : 45— Parteienwettbewerb, Regierungsbildung und Ergebnisse der Koalitionsverhandlungen nach der Bundestagswahl In Die Parteien nach der Bundestagswahl , Hrsg.

Niedermayer, — Sozialstrukturelle und einstellungsbasierte Determinanten des Wahlverhaltens und ihr Einfluss bei Bundestagswahlen im Zeitverlauf: Westdeutschland — Schmitt-Beck, 40— Zum Einfluss des Geschlechts auf das individuelle Wahlverhalten bei den Bundestagswahlen zwischen und Analysen aus Anlass der Bundestagswahl , Hrsg. Schoen, und B. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. Government formation after the federal election: The remake of the Christian-Liberal coalition under new patterns of party competition.

German Politics 20 1 : — West European Politics 36 5 : — Expected utility or learned familiarity? Electoral Studies 34 1 : 54— Stegmaier, und J. Economic voting under coalition governments: Evidence from Germany. Political Science Research and Methods 2 1 : 49— Decker, F. Koalitionsaussagen der Parteien vor Wahlen. Eine Forschungsskizze im Kontext des deutschen Regierungssystems. Downs, A. An economic theory of political action in a democracy. The Journal of Political Economy 65 2 : — Eith, U. Jun, M. Haas, und O.

Gabriel, O. Schoen, und K. Opladen: Barbara Budrich. Giger, N. Towards a modern gender gap in Europe? The Social Science Journal 46 3 : — Glasgow, G. A new approach to the study of parties entering government. British Journal of Political Science 45 4 : — Golder, S. New forms of autocratic rule came into being that scholars now classify under the heading of electoral authoritarianism, i. That kind of election is now a quaint relic of the past. Today, elections in authoritarian regimes in Africa or Asia no longer can be so easily managed as they were in the former Eastern Bloc.

To be sure, they are manipulated, orchestrated, and rigged, but they also offer the opposition a welcome opportunity to mobilize, make alliances, and appeal to a national and international public. The new authoritarian desire to establish a formally democratic residue of legitimacy in the domestic and foreign arenas carries with it a risk to the legitimacy of those in power. Formerly clear boundaries between prototypical democracies and dictatorships have grown increasingly blurred. Leaving aside merely polemical use of terms, who would want to say exactly which of the following regimes should be counted as an autocracy or merely classified as a defective democracy: Russia under Vladimir Putin or Boris Yelstin , the Turkey of Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the contemporary Ukraine, Venezuela, the Philippines, or Singapore?

Scholarly research on regimes has grown more cautious. Such classifications thus leave many political regimes in a gray area between the ideal-types. Furthermore, the gray area regimes are more stable than is commonly assumed, in that they do not move over time in the direction of becoming closed dictatorships or open democracies. They have long since established their own equilibrium, one that is sensitive to both historical and political contexts. This paradox is one aspect of the postmodern jigsaw puzzle: all across the globe forms of political authority are growing more differentiated.

How stable are the new dictatorships? If we assume the tripartite division of political regimes into autocracies, hybrid regimes, and democracies, we can distinguish, among the or so countries in the world, about 65 democracies under the rule of law and 45 unvarnished autocracies. Of the remainder, the majority are hybrid regimes in all of their different permutations.

So how stable are political regimes really? How durable are dictatorships? Statistically speaking, over the past 60 years democracies have been the most stable, followed by dictatorships, and finally by hybrid regimes. What is the reason for the relative stability of dictatorial regimes? In a study recently carried out at the Berlin Social Science Center we assumed that political rule in dictatorships, as incidentally in hybrid regimes as well, rests on three pillars: legitimation, repression, and cooptation. Legitimation always derives from two sources, one normative and the other performance-based.

Anti-liberalism, racism, nationalism, religiously anachronistic ideas of salvation, as well as Marxist visionary schemes all can generate at least temporary normative approval among those on the receiving end of political rule.

However, in the early years of the 21st century fascist and communist ideologies have lost much of their appeal. If any ideologies still have the ability to create strong ties among their adherents nowadays, it would be the variants of Islamic political fundamentalism. But for them, restrictions on basic human rights are part of the canon of principles upon which their claims to rule depend.

And, for that very reason, in the long run the wellsprings of their promises of salvation will likely dry up and the enchantment of their world will fade in the cold light of a repressive reality. Because the normative side of legitimation is sapped in this way, dictatorial regimes rely for support especially on their performance in the areas of the economy, security, and order. But autocratic regimes also face risks if the economy and society modernize too rapidly.

When that happens, middle classes form, workers unionize, educational levels increase, civil society emerges, and discourses get underway that invite broader political participation. However, this is not a trend that culminates inevitably in a successful process of democratization in the way that modernization theory optimistically still claims. The latter of course maintain enormous numbers of Southeast Asian slave laborers deprived of all rights, which enables them to evade the challenge of dealing with a self-confident domestic working class.

Second, autocracies rely on repression, which can assume different forms and levels of intensity. Whereas the first of these primarily aims to restrict political rights such as the freedoms of assembly, expression, press, and employment, the latter is designed mainly to attack the core of human rights, such as the right to life, physical integrity, and the liberty of the individual.

It can be demonstrated empirically that elites in authoritarian systems of rule frequently react to threats to the status quo with intensified repression. Yet repression alone is scarcely capable of stabilizing a political regime in the long run. This is so because a great deal of legitimacy is being sacrificed. When repression is ratcheted up, its deterrent power is enhanced, but simultaneously there is a loss of legitimation and thereby of popular consent.

High levels of hard repression are expensive, and ultimately they undermine the foundations of political authority. During the period that we examined , statistical evidence shows that soft repression was the most successful factor in stabilizing hundreds of dictatorships. The third pillar of political domination is cooptation. It may enable elites in autocratic systems of rule to induct influential actors and groups outside the regime proper into the inner circle of the dictatorship.

Strategically important elites of this type are generally recruited from among the economic elite, the security services, and the military. They are usually offered offices, political privileges, resources, and economic concessions as a quid pro quo for their loyalty. Corruption, clientelism, and patrimonial networks are their instruments. In our analysis we show that weaknesses in one of the pillars of rule can be offset by shoring up the other ones.

Yet in some instances cracks in one pillar can overburden the others. Then spaces of protest open up that, if employed on a grand scale, can lead to the collapse of the entire regime. Of course, there are no guarantees that the rule of law and democracy will ensue from its demise.