If these motifs are the darkened mode of Romantic prophecy, how do the Romantics, and how do we, read for the future? I reply to this question by thinking about uncertainty, chance, and contingency, not sure-fire prophecy, as the narrative engines of Romantic futurity. At issue for the Romantic era, as for our own, is not knowing what the future will be impossible to know in any era , but working out resources to keep at hand for when we or others get there. Theresa M. She has published widely on Romantic poetics, aesthetics, visual culture, the matter of archives, and philosophy.
She is currently working on two books: Reading for the Future and Color Trouble. They were crucial inhabitants of the city: they supplied necessary transportation to citizens and served their less respectable appetites for off-market fish and out-of-wedlock sex. They appear in studies as asides, when they appear at all: snapshots of itinerant groups that relied upon the river for their livelihoods.
Lunch Break ampm; a limited number of lunches will be provided. Afternoon Coffee and Refreshments Break pm. Studies on music-theatrical representation have often considered sites and examples found on the Western stage, and the different ways such works projected a musical imaginary of a colonial other for its European and American audience. But what if the stage was colonial Manila at the turn of the twentieth century and the playwrights and composers are Filipinos who were thinking through ideas about cultural and national identities?
In this seminar, I will investigate the complex relationship between music, theater, and identity, and how they defy neat and tidy definitions of cultural nationalism that have long been associated with the repertoire of the Tagalog zarzuela. How many layers of French history does the highly controversial slogan Je suis Charlie conceal? Over the last three decades, the French national past has been put into question: Vichy, the Holocaust, the Algerian War, and finally May 68 are crucial events that continuously resurge into the public sphere, where they are reinterpreted through the prism of present worries and sensibilities.
Far from being monolithic, this process of memory construction is necessarily plural and conflicted, alternating between moments of forgetting, anamnesis and obsession; it shakes the traditional procedures of history writing as well as old national myths and narratives.
Before coming to Cornell in , he taught political science for many years in France, and has been a visiting professor at many universities in Western Europe and Latin America. The successful Japanese invasion of Burma in sealed off the easiest overland route for delivering desperately needed Allied wartime aid to China. With the roads closed, American goods piled up in wharves, godowns, and warehouses across Asia and North America even after the end of World War II in The image of this stockpile was continually used as evidence by American military and political leaders for Chinese ineptitude, laziness, and bad faith.
Kinzley is an associate professor of modern Chinese history at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is currently working on a new book project that focuses on the trans-pacific material exchange of American industrial goods and lend-lease equipment for Chinese raw materials during the s. Dick Gregory was a pivotal figure in modern American popular culture and a catalyst in the movements for social justice emerging out of the s. Edward Schmitt is an associate professor of history at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside, where he has taught since His research and teaching focuses on the intersections of politics, social movements, and culture, particularly as these have addressed inequality in American life.
This play saw more performances in 16th-century Italy than any other. For full schedule, speaker information, and address information, see here. For downloadable pdf poster, see here. For more information, contact Kristin Phillips-Court: phillipscour wisc. Please note: Symposium will take place across two days, beginning at pm on Friday October 12th and continuing all day Saturday October 13th. The question of scale has always been central to island studies.
Whether through an engagement with relational and archipelagic forces, the employment of fractals, or the prominent positioning of island studies within the Anthropocene, today questions of scale are receiving attention in new ways. In this discussion, Michelle Stephens explores recent work in this area, the different and overlapping ways through which we are rethinking the scalar and islands in the contemporary era.
This seminar will introduce my book project demonstrating how Senegalese artist-activists are mobilizing HipHop to impact formal politics on an unprecedented scale. Through an emphasis on participatory democracy and global justice, they implicitly challenge the compatibility of democracy with economic liberalism and the contemporary world order. Artist, activist, and academic Damon Sajnani is a HipHop polymath. This seminar will preview a portion of my book manuscript which is a historiographical project about how Black women have survived and thrived in and beyond higher education amidst formidable challenges.
I argue that Black women used their individual and collective identities to persevere, amidst significant racism and sexism, through and beyond higher education across multiple decades and geographic spaces. Her research focuses on how students of color survive and thrive in college. In the s and early s, musicians in Recife, the capital of the northeastern state of Pernambuco, were benefiting from federal and state multicultural policies, which enabled many of them to envision and execute large-scale performances.
In and , when I conducted ethnographic fieldwork of the city's cena alternativa alternative scene the musicians I knew had trouble making ends meet, yet state sponsorship nevertheless supported their aspirations to perform their mixtures of rock, jazz, and local folk sounds on bigger and better domestic and international stages with higher production values. However, by , the unprecedented economic growth Brazilians had been experiencing gave way to the country's worst recession in modern history.
This presentation addresses how musicians and cultural promoters are coping with Brazil's economic crisis and the changes in cultural policy that have accompanied it. Ultimately, they have been downscaling their strategies for surviving in what was already an unstable and precarious musical market. How are such strategies re-shaping their practical and aesthetic goals? As a cultural and linguistic anthropologist, her research examines artistic and communicative practices as constitutive elements of social life.
As a faculty member at UW-Madison since , she has been expanding her research on music and state sponsorship in Recife, Brazil. He earned his title at a relatively young age and became greater as he grew older, achieving military victories against a variety of opponents over a wide geographic area, and basking in the glory of three triumphal parades.
In typical Roman fashion, he converted his military success into political capital, becoming a major benefactor of Rome and holder of its highest elected office. His life, however, ended in defeat and an ignominious death. As a result, ancient authors including historians, biographers, and poets usually told his story in tragic or ethical terms. Scientists as well as many of the New Atheists , I shall argue, over-reach in these contexts, mistakenly seeing in science solutions to problems that are not scientific in nature.
However, of course, the failure of science does not entail the success of religion. In this talk, I will illustrate my thesis with an examination of the problem of free will. Lawrence Shapiro received his Ph. His main research areas are in philosophy of mind and philosophy of psychology. What is irrelevance? What sort of research is irrelevant, in the humanities? Is all scholarship relevant in the humanities? Have you done research or teaching that you consider to be irrelevant?
Have others? This book project evaluates the influence of Reformation and Enlightenment ideas on Eastern Orthodox Church during the age of great reforms under the reigns of Peter I , Catherine II and Alexander I Reforms, inspired by the church, however, reached well beyond the boundaries of religion: in creating the new standards of social discipline and public hygiene, the new priorities in foreign relations, the celebration of reason, the rise of toleration, and the synergy of an enlightened faith with the pre-Darwinian science. Andrey V. Ivanov Ph. Divine Touch and Relicization within Narrative, Hagiographical, and Visual Representations from the Twelfth through the Fifteenth Centuries is an interdisciplinary investigation of specific moments in various Old French, Middle English, hagiographical, and visual representations, in which individuals—humans, non-human animals, and objects—are divinely touched.
The individuals in question are miraculously bodily restored, transforming them into living relics; a process that I refer to as relicization. As relicized bodies are at once living and holy material, functioning in and among the secular and sacred realms, what can they tell us about the hierarchy between humans, non-human animals, and objects? How do they re consider the role s and limits of the body? What do they reveal about seemingly fixed systems of power—patriarchal, familial, feudal, ecclesiastical—in the Middle Ages?
Heide Estes. Mapping Mediterranean Geographies is a study of the cultural encounter between Muslim and Christian inhabitants of the Mediterranean basin between the twelfth and sixteenth century. It approaches this subject from the vantage point of the circulation, transmission, and reception of geographical knowledge between Muslim and Christian geographical writers and cartographers who dwelled along the shores of the sea.
The project begins with an acknowledgement of difference across the Mediterranean: geographical knowledge of the world and ways of representing it differed greatly between the Islamic world and western Europe. Through the lens of geography and cartography, this project assesses the different ways in which Muslim and Christian inhabitants of the Mediterranean understood their world and how cross-cultural exchange and reception of new knowledge altered those conceptions. Jeremy Ledger received his Ph.
His research and writing center on the social, cultural, and intellectual history of interfaith relations in the medieval and early modern Mediterranean. He is currently working on a book project entitled Mapping Mediterranean Geographies that explores how Muslim and Christian inhabitants of the western and central Mediterranean constructed the cosmos, globe, space, self, and others in geographical writing, cartography, and travelogues.
The concept of diaspora has become increasingly prominent in scholarly discussions of race, ethnicity, and migration. Yet such deconstructions of Asian American identity have often struggled to maintain the political commitments that have historically been central to ethnic studies. The work of poet and activist Janice Mirikitani, a prominent writer of the s whose poems give aesthetic form to cross-racial and transnational coalitions against racism and colonialism, provides a powerful model for contemporary Asian American authors and critics.
But what does its appearance signify? Through such examples, the talk raises broader methodological questions about narrative structure and teleological reasoning in history that arise as I embark on a new book-length history of biology. Lynn K. She is currently working on a book on life science, politics and religion in mid-nineteenth-century Germany, and beginning a general history of modern biology to be co-authored with Angela Creager. What can words do? Or for the historian, what could words do in cultures past? This talk focuses on the northern cities of medieval Italy, the nascent self-governing republics that arose in the midst of encroaching monarchic and seigniorial rule.
The cities branded themselves as beacons of libertas , but dissimilar to the ideals of many modern republics, speech was far from free there. In order to understand that world, I construct a cultural history of speech and its regulation by drawing together medical tracts, pastoral treatises, rhetorical manuals, contemporary literature, statute law, and civic, episcopal, and inquisition trial processes.
Melissa Vise is a historian of medieval Europe whose research focuses on religious, cultural, and legal history with an emphasis on the Italian peninsula. Dale, and Jan Miernowski. To view the FLWG's statement and petition, see here. In , Charles, Prince of Wales, made an unprecedented visit to Spain. He traveled there under a false name and in disguise with the company of only the Duke of Buckingham and two servants.
It was depicted in news pamphlets, popular ballads, court poetry, and plays. This presentation explores textual portrayals of the unanticipated visit, examining the way they prodded the boundaries of the historical genre. Her research focuses on the representation of England in early modern Spanish texts and the interplay between history and fiction in various literary genres.
Translation is understood here not only as a practice that transfers meaning in the narrow linguistic sense of the word, but also as the process by which broader social and political formations are carried over from one culture to another. The untranslatable notions tied to particular civilizational heritage are especially challenging in this process, since issues of mutual comprehension become charged with perceptions of unequal power in the ongoing global crises and the resulting violence.
The seminar will use the innovative methodology of cultural translation to analyze this phenomenon by calling for a new conceptualization of trauma, space and identity, especially during the ongoing migrant crisis affecting the Europe in general and the Balkan peninsula in particular. He was a Visiting Professor at Harvard University in and This symposium proposes to bring together artists, scientists and scholars across several disciplines for whom color matters in quite different registers, across the globe and across modernity.
From the Early Modern era to the present, color theory and practice cross disciplines and sponsor debates about what color is. The symposium invites scholars, artists and participants to think about how their research addresses two questions: crossovers between color theory and material practices now, among artists and scientists, and as part of the global exchange of color, pigments and artifacts. For more information on the symposium and the schedule of speakers, see event website.
Pantomime, first attested under Augustus, transformed the traditionally staged and acted drama that audiences were familiar with into an exciting new form, a solo, masked, mimetic dance. My project considers the cultural and intellectual impact of this controversial art form, from its origins in Rome in the 1st century BC to its afterlife in 18th century Europe. Pantomime affected not just how people conceived of dance, but the potential for non-verbal communication of narrative and emotion.
Pantomime also outlasted spoken drama by several hundred years, forming a bridge between ancient performance traditions and Late Antiquity. In the Enlightenment, ballet choreographers re-discovered ancient pantomime through the text of Lucian's On the Dance , and formed a new connection between ballet and pantomime as a way of elevating the status of the dance by linking it to an ancient antecedent.
Throughout these debates about pantomime, in ancient and modern contexts, run questions about the relationship between tradition and innovation, gesture and narrative, silence and memory, and performance and emotion. In the German-speaking states of the s and 50s, revolution was in the air. While the political revolutions of are best known, the life sciences were undergoing their own revolutions, marked by radical new ideas about the organization and transformations of living beings.
This talk focuses on a cluster of leading life scientists of the period to examine their participation in the events of this era, both political and intellectual. Through these disruptions, Nyhart argues, scientists came to articulate and enact new models for the relationship of the scientist to political action—models that continue to have force today. Nyhart studies the history of biology in the modern post era, as well as the relations between popular and professional science, and the politics of science, especially in nineteenth-century Germany.
They are currently working on a history of concepts of biological part-whole relations in the nineteenth century. What gives norms—moral norms, political norms, norms of reasoning—their peculiar authority? After considering alternative answers to this question, I will focus on constructivist theories of normativity inspired by Kant.
On this approach, some norms are constitutive of the very nature of activities humans undertake. Michael G. He received his Ph. He received the Sanders Prize in Epistemology for best essay written by a scholar within 15 years of the Ph. All are welcome. Room is accessible.
The article can be obtained here. Contact mmc english. She has written a number of book chapters and articles on queer theory, crip theory, modernist studies especially Virginia Woolf and H. Perhaps because of her exhaustive critique of Nazi totalitarianism, fascism is often associated in the public imaginary with totalitarianism and dictatorships. How was Woolf herself treated by medical practitioners who upheld norms of mental and physical health to which Woolf did not conform? The answers to these questions are not simple and not always flattering to Woolf. This understanding of biopower provides impetus for speculation on the persistence of fascism into the 21st century under political guises that look more like neoliberalism than totalitarianism, yet still rely on the populist and eugenicist underpinnings of fascist ideology.
Scientists originally ascribed the extinction of species like the giant beaver, mastodon, and mammoth to changes in the climate, claiming that these and other species had not been able to survive the last glacial period. By the middle of the twentieth century, paleoecologists argued that climatic explanations were unsatisfactory. Instead, human hunting had wiped out these species. Instead, Native American thinkers pointed back to climatic explanations, which closely matched Native American oral traditions.
In this talk, I will examine the various explanations for the Pleistocene extinctions, exploring the different methods used to study ecological and human history. Doing so will reveal the interplay between different systems of knowledge and the contested nature of scientific and mythological evidence, as well as their implications for social and cultural understandings of what it means to be human. Her research explores the development of ecological ideas and techniques used to understand the changing dynamics of human-environment interactions over the last 12, years.
Dozens of U. Yet for their Ecuadorian contemporaries, the islands were not an escape, but a prison: a place of penal colonies and forced plantation labor. This talk examines the collision of these different geographical imaginations and how they both spurred conservationist concern and continue to disrupt ideals of preserving the islands as a timeless natural laboratory.
Trained as a geographer, she works at the intersection of political ecology, science and technologies studies, animal studies, and environmental history. Her first book will be published with Yale University Press in For nearly two centuries, millions of Americans have been celebrating Christmas with a tree and Thanksgiving with a turkey, yet despite that depth of experience, an enduring ambivalence remains: Which type of tree and which type of turkey should enter the home?
Real or artificial? Heritage breed or factory farmed? In , he was awarded the University Award for Teaching Excellence. While walking through a cemetery in Copenhagen in , I noticed a name that seemed out of place. Hear about my discovery and the basis for my new book project about the transnational experiences of African Americans in Denmark.
His research focuses on the twentieth- and twenty-first-century global Anglophone novel, literature and the social sciences, postcolonial theory, and world literature studies. Ribic has taught courses in modern literature and composition at Stockholm University and UW-Madison. Providing a distinct window into the social and political developments of the early Roman Empire, my research focuses on Roman attitudes towards the digesting body and the domestic practices associated with its needs in order to probe Roman notions of embodiment.
While recent work in Roman social and cultural history has enhanced our knowledge about Roman attitudes toward sexuality, far less attention has been given to the role of the digesting body for the articulation of Roman social hierarchies. Next, I turn to the world of practice and consider the daily and repetitive exchanges between body and objects designed to assist in the preparation and consumption of food, focusing specifically on cooking benches and dining couches.
She has published articles in the Journal of Roman Archaeology and Helios. Extending from my dissertation research this talk attends to works of art that ask us to listen just as much as they ask us to look. This call to listen is crucial to the ethical and political aims of art of women and artists of color beginning with the pivotal work of Adrian Piper, Ana Mendieta, and Pauline Oliveros in the s who take advantage of the space of the gallery and museum to alter sensory dynamics as a way of changing social power relations.
Rather than recovering vocality as an object, this study offers a reading of voice and vocality as practice and verb that is materially vibrational and positions the spectator-as-listener.
How did people form their attitudes towards law in early modern and Republican period China? How did mass legal education affect the uses of law in daily life? Early modern European long-distance voyages had their impetus in the search for the source of spices, the Spice Islands of the Moluccas, or Maluku.
When Europeans sailed to the East Indies, how did they communicate with locals? In archipelagic Southeast Asia where the lingua franca was Malay how did they navigate the new linguistic environment? Who were the interpreters who mediated such transactions? What was the nature of the relationship between interpreters and those for whom they translated?
How did experiences of encounter inflect literary representation? Su Fang Ng is Clifford A. She has published Literature and the Politics of Family in Seventeenth-Century England Cambridge University Press, and essays on medieval, early modern, and postcolonial topics. In , the United States issued a Neutrality Proclamation to avoid involvement in a war between Britain and France, its principal allies.
Neutrality confronted numerous challenges, particularly from American citizens eager to profit from European warfare as privateers. To remain neutral, the U. This seminar will address a book-length project examining the unexplored relationship between neutrality and the establishment of the American government. Sandra Moats is an associate professor of history at UW-Parkside. Her research focuses on the governing challenges and political choices that confronted the American republic in its founding decades. Her first book, Celebrating the Republic , addressed the role of presidential ceremony in launching the American government.
In the weather, Sharpe situates anti-Blackness and white supremacy as the total climate that produces premature Black death as normative. Her research interests are in black visual culture, black diaspora studies, and feminist epistemologies, with a particular emphasis on black female subjectivity and black women artists. In our changing climate, severe storms have become both aberrant and quotidian. Light refreshments will be served, but feel free to bring along a bag lunch. RSVP to receive a copy of the relevant reading. Is caring for children a private or public responsibility?
What or whom should be cared for collectively? Which activities count as care? How much is care worth and who decides? Why, in this political and environmental moment, is a new economy of care necessary and how can it be achieved? This talk addresses these questions by bringing the voices of frontline cafeteria workers, past and present, into an academic literature saturated with nutritionists, policymakers, and managers who rarely if ever come face-to-face with the children whose dietary fates they decide.
As a transdisciplinary scholar, her research lies at the intersection of critical food studies, feminist economics, US political and social history, and environmental sociology. She has received fellowships and grants from the National Science Foundation, the US Department of Agriculture, and multiple private foundations to support this work. Since the s, American evangelical Christians have flocked to Holy Land sites in Israel and Palestine in ever-increasing numbers.
In , more than , American evangelicals visited Israel. The rise of Holy Land tourism is a window into how evangelical Christians and Israelis have redefined Jewish-Christian relations after to serve state interests. This talk looks at how U. Cold War immigration policies structured the marginalization of Central Americans. Unlike Southeast Asians, Central Americans did not flee communist countries but countries where the U. They were thus denied the legal designation of refugees, leading to their mass arrival as undocumented immigrants. This contrast underscores the imprint of U.
Cold War policies on lives of the displaced and how it intersected with the history of homelessness in the U. Her articles have appeared in the American Quarterly, Journal of Asian American Studies , and other academic journals and anthologies. In spring , she will be the next Director of Asian American Studies. What did lay Buddhist women actually do in order to forge a connection with the bodhisattva Guanyin after he underwent a sex-change and became a female deity during late imperial China?
How did a shared gender identity between the worshipper and worshipped enable practitioners to establish a new type relationship through material practice? How are gendered skills connected to religious transformation? Why did laywomen use brush, human hair, jewelry and dance to reproduce the image of Guanyin and to embody of Guanyin in late imperial China?
In my presentation, I will ask these questions to shed light on the intersections of gender, material practice and religion in late imperial China. She received her Ph. Her primary research interests cover a wide range subjects and mediums, including gender, material and visual practice in late imperial China. Her articles on hair embroidery Guanyin, Empress Dowager Cixi dressing up as Guanyin in paintings and photographs and other essays have been published recently.
In my talk I will sketch a phenomenology of failure, with a focus on a few prominent moments in the history of thinking about failure such as Gnosticism and Existentialism especially E. Must the humanities be "relevant"? To what, or to whom? How have perspectives on these questions evolved since the heated debates of the s and s?
Can research be "irrelevant," and if so, can it still be worth pursuing? Or, on the other hand, is all research in the humanities in some way relevant? Our six panelists will each speak for five minutes about the notion of relevance as it relates to their research and teaching, after which an hour will be devoted to general discussion. All audience members are encouraged to propose approaches to this subject, and to reflect on their own experiences.
This exponential increase in prisons and imprisoned populations over the last several decades reveals a seeming paradox of modernity — that is, the modern era, in all its global diversity, has nonetheless been the era of the prison. The global history of the prison reveals a troubling alternative genealogy of political modernity, insofar as modern conceptions of citizenship, rights, and political emancipation have often been produced through their multiple entanglements with modern regimes of surveillance, policing, and incarceration.
Yet too often studies of penal regimes or punishment practices remain limited in their regional or theoretical scope, seeking to answer questions about particular carceral, policing, or legal realities without making links between the global economies or interlinked histories or logics of punishment. This conference seeks to address this issue by encouraging a comparative and transnational investigation of carceral and policing practices across borders, eras, and academic disciplines by bringing together several leading scholars working in the emerging and interdisciplinary field of global prison studies.
Panelists are invited to reflect on the following questions; please come and share your ideas and memories on these as well:. How might your discipline or interdisciplinary research area contribute to the future direction of the Humanities? How has the Institute for Research in the Humanities enhanced your scholarly work or your understanding of your discipline? What role to you see for the IRH in the future of the Humanities? Following the panel, we invite all attendees to take up these questions at their tables with discussion facilitators:.
The global turn in modernist studies has offered scholars of India the first significant opportunity to position modern Indian literature and theatre in the new time-space of modernism. However, the long premodern history of these cultural forms, and their embeddedness in a complex system of multilingual literacy outside the Europhone fold, raises a range of critical issues that need systematic articulation. What are the implications of using language as a specific vector of analysis in modernist interpretation, in addition to the spatio-temporal and vertical vectors of the new modernist studies?
Aparna Dharwadker is Professor of English and Interdisciplinary Theatre Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and works primarily in the areas of modern Indian and postcolonial theatre, comparative modern drama, theatre theory, and the global South Asian diaspora.
Callaway Prize in as the best book on drama or theatre published in Romnes Fellowship for outstanding scholarship in the humanities. Why do we see a renaissance of documentary practices in contemporary theatre? Where and how does the idea of the affective of a staged biography or the autobiographical enter the scene?
And what is the place that this genre of documentary fictions take on different stages around Latin America? One way to tackle these questions could be through the understanding the personal stories affect us, the audience, in a very direct way. However, I also believe that an effect of this type of implosion of this genre has been to give agency to those other voices that are rarely heard or considered. Paola S. She has published numerous articles on Southern Cone theatre, performance, memory politics, sites of memory, and human rights.
Her current research project examines the role of the "real" in theatre and visual arts with an emphasis on contemporary documentary theatre and urban ethnography in Argentina, Colombia, Chile, Mexico, and Peru. At these sites friars studied Arabic and Hebrew grammar as well as Arabic natural philosophy and Jewish law for use as weapons in a sort of spiritual warfare against their adversaries. It might seem that the missionaries based anti-Muslim polemics on rational foundations as a way of creating a neutral epistemic space for argument.
In fact, this was not the case. Rather the ideal Muslim whose authority they sought to challenge took the form of a deliberative philosopher almost as a religious or even ethnic stereotype, which they applied to elite Arab culture generally. How did this ethnographic stereotype come to figure in the Latin missionary imagination, and what were its social consequences?
Presence of the sphragis is typically associated with specific behavioral patterns. Courtship behavior is absent or rudimentary in almost all sphragis-bearing species Epstein , Matsumoto , Orr , Tyler et al. Mates are secured, often by pursuit and aerial capture, with mating taking place in mid-air or on the ground Larsen , Matsumoto reported that males of Luehdorfia japonica Leech, Parnassiinae seize females in midair, carry them to the ground, and copulate with them.
Similar behavior has been analyzed in detail in the Australian sphragis-bearing troidine C. In this species, large males often capture and mate with the smaller females in mid-air but relatively smaller males carry females to the ground to mate. Cressida cressida males are significantly larger than females, an unusual condition in butterflies, but this disparity probably relates to their strong territorial behavior, rather than to success at forced copulation Orr b. This conclusion was reached earlier by Marshall , , based on his observations of Acraea Heliconiinae mating in nature, and Haude , based on observations of Parnassius.
Because the sphragis blocks only the genital opening of the female, the ovipositor is unobstructed Labine , although the sphragis can be so large in many species it can be a distinct encumbrance and accidental blocking of the oopore has been reported van der Poorten and van der Poorten The size and shape of the sphragis could potentially be important in preventing males from being able to grasp the female with their valvae Orr Moreover, Orr and Rutowski showed that the sphragis of C. In their study, females with intact sphragides were less likely to be pursued by males when compared with females where the sphragis was experimentally trimmed or removed.
Supporting this hypothesis is the observation that females of C. It is conceivable that in other sphragis-bearing species, males might also be able to visually assess whether mating is possible depending on the development of the sphragis Orr and Rutowski Apart from its large size, the sphragis often stands out with strong color contrast to the rest of the body, possibly increasing its apparency, but if this occurs it is surely a secondary function Orr b.
In the most comprehensive comparative survey to date, Orr examined the presence or absence of mating plugs, the relative investment in spermatophore versus plug, as well as female genital anatomy in over species, including sphragis-bearing species and others representing a range of plugging strategies in the Papilionidae , Pieridae and Nymphalidae. Bryk , b surveyed the sphragis of several Papilionidae and Palaearctic Nymphalidae genera, while Ackery focused on Parnassiinae.
Although most sphragis-bearing genera recognized by contemporary taxonomic arrangements were included, no study so far has provided a comprehensive survey of all species. The morphology of the sphragis and associated male and female genitalia are well documented in widely scattered literature for African Acraea Eltringham , , van Son , Pierre a , , a , b , Orr , but the sphragis in Neotropical Acraea Paluch et al.
Studies on the biology of the sphragis in living butterflies have mostly focused on C. Some less detailed observations are also available for the genus Acraea in the Heliconiinae Marshall , Eltringham , Epstein , Orr A large body of published information exists on the occurrence and diversity of the sphragis, but it is largely obscure, scattered, old and often published in languages other than English. There is a need for this information to be collated and for several conspicuous gaps to be filled. In this paper we aim to provide an overview of the subject and develop a dataset to inform future investigation.
We present the first comprehensive review of the structural variability of the sphragis across all butterflies, illustrating the variety of forms that these can take. All species of butterflies in which a well-defined sphragis is known to occur are listed based on published information and direct observation of museum specimens. Reports of sphragis occurrence in Erebidae Rawlins and Lycaenidae Bryk , we dismiss as erroneous.
Bryk illustrated a sphragis-like structure in the Nymphalidae Argynnis paphia , however, subsequent investigation has failed to confirm this observation and it is suggested Matsumoto pers. In addition, as noted previously, sphragis-like formations which may represent incipient sphragis evolution or secondary loss occur in some butterflies Orr A complex anomalous structure is also discussed in our analysis. We establish a three point system of categorization for true sphragides based on degree of complexity.
Finally, we examine the processes and patterns of sphragis evolution in the context of a currently accepted butterfly phylogeny. Clas Naumann Bonn.
For our museum specimen searches, we especially targeted Nymphalidae and Papilionidae because only in these families has the sphragis been reliably reported by previous authors. Mated females of all species available to us in each target group see below were inspected using a dissecting microscope with the following aims: 1 to confirm and categorize the sphragis in species previously reported to have a sphragis, and 2 to gather new data for any species not mentioned in literature. We also contacted specialists who had studied sphragis-bearing species in order to gather additional unpublished data.
For each species, we tried to examine mated females of at least ten specimens if possible in a few cases thousands were available. Generally, the minimum combined sample was five specimens. We recorded key traits of the sphragis of each species, especially: the presence of male scales attached to the surface or incorporated into its matrix; whether it was mainly hollow or solid; the presence of projections or other specialized sculpturing; and its size relative to the female abdomen.
For each image, 10 to 20 image layers depending on the size of the sphragis were taken across a series of close-spaced focal planes, using the Automated Macro Rail for Focus Stacking StackShot. These were later stacked using the software Helicon Focus on a PC computer. Figures were edited and assembled using Adobe Photoshop CS4.
Restricted to the troidine genus Trogonoptera and figured in Orr Based on the traits recorded for each sphragis we developed a system of categorization based on level of complexity. Category 1 low complexity : a protosphragis or a vestigial sphragis, characterized by being small, amorphous and of facultative occurrence.
Category 2 moderate complexity : a hemi-sphragis, or a well-formed externalized sphragis lacking male scales and essentially solid, of small to medium size. Category 3 medium complexity : a well formed sphragis incorporating male scales but solid and of simple form, mostly small to medium in size. A total of butterflies species in two families — Papilionidae 72 species, 13 genera and Nymphalidae species, 9 genera — were recorded as having a sphragis, protosphragis, vestigial sphragis, or hemi-sphragis Suppl.
The 22 sphragis-bearing genera were distributed in 8 tribes within the two families. The presence of a sphragis in the Ithomiini Pteronymia remained undetected until recently De-Silva et al. Sphragis of butterfly species a ventral b lateral, category of the sphragis in parenthesis. Sphragis of butterfly species, a ventral b lateral, category of the sphragis in parenthesis.
A protosphragis was present in 11 species, vestigial sphragides occurred in 14 species, while a hemi-sphragis is found only in the two known species of the Troidini genus Trogonoptera Suppl. For the species where a sphragis occurs Suppl. We could not define a category for 16 sphragis-bearing species due to lack of data, which in most cases was due to the small number of specimens available, preventing a confident determination on the complexity of the sphragis.
Although most species fit well within our categories, intermediates occurred. Examples include Allancastria spp. We listed these species in Suppl. The fact that complex sphragides are more common across butterfly groups might indicate that male adaptations to produce them are subject to strong selection. Four categories of sphragis including two subcategories were recognized in terms of structural complexity Suppl. For example, the sphragis in species of the P. This could be a strategy to maximize the bulk of the sphragis without increasing mass Orr , thus optimizing its effectiveness while reducing the material cost to the male in its production, as well as reducing the load carried by the female.
Such forms are associated with major adaptations in the male genitalia Orr The sphragis of most Parnassius species is generally hollow and those of the P. Based on available data, the sphragis of P. Those of P. Acraea species exhibit great variation in the form and development of the sphragis. In some, such as A. The form of the female genitalia and the small size of the spermatophore suggests that this species evolved from sphragis-bearing ancestors.
Similarly, the sphragis has probably been lost in A. The sphragis has therefore apparently been lost independently at least twice in African Acraea ; in other species the sphragis may be vestigial. These sphragides tend to be relatively small compared to male mass see A. These seem to represent a larger investment by the male see A.
Small sphragides incorporating dense, long scales have also been described in Allancastria species Matsumoto et al. Papilionidae : Parnassiinae. A medium-sized, scale-covered structure occurs in the H. Some medium sized sphragides are probably extremely effective in preventing remating. For example, the sphragis of C. It represents about 6. The sphragis of some species, notably Euryades corethrus Boisduval, and E. On the other hand, solid small-medium size sphragides lacking scales occur in many Acraea species.
In these cases the sphragis is formed in a sclerotized mold associated with the male genitalia van Son , Orr Sphragis of butterfly species, a ventral, b lateral, category of the sphragis in parenthesis. Example of male adaptations associated with sphragis production: a parasagittal section of Euryades corethrus male showing deep pockets where sphragis wings are molded and other features associated with sphragis production b The finished sphragis in situ on the female abdomen. A girdle occurs in E.
It occurs in P. Recent phylogenies of Parnassius Michel et al. It loosely encircles the abdomen, but evidently does not grip it tightly above as in girdled papilionid species. The variation in color of the sphragis might reflect differences in the composition of the sphragidal material; this subject deserves further investigation. In the P. Almost all butterfly species in our list display structures that meet our definition of the sphragis, however, we recognized a few unusual intermediate forms.
The male has a specialized pouch where the plug material is formed into a broad ribbon, which coalesces into a solid body with lacunae Orr , This structure is comparable in size with the sphragis of many Acraea species. The hemi-sphragis of Trogonoptera and the small sphragis of P. This intermediate condition is unusual. Although the sphragis appears to be an effective structure to prevent remating, there are examples where the female might be able to mate again Pierre a , Epstein , Matsumoto , Orr , Sourakov and Emmel For example, a second mating might occur soon after the first mating, while the sphragis of the first male is still relatively soft and can be moved or removed by the second male, or if the first sphragis was unusually frail.
Sourakov and Emmel reported a male of A. This however, might not guarantee success to the second male; Orr figured a female of A. In general it is important to appreciate that the presence of a double sphragis, termed a plethosphragis by Bryk , does not imply that the second male was able to inseminate that female because as long as the original sphragis remains intact, the spermatophore of the second male remains outside the body of the female.
Allowing time for the sphragis to harden could be the reason for protracted mating in C. There are cases known in Parnassius species where hardened sphragides have been lost by the female or were removed by subsequent males Matsumoto and Suzuki , Vlasanek and Konvicka , which would potentially allow additional matings.
Moreover, Orr experimentally induced males of C. However, he noted that the energy and time spent removing the sphragis around 30 hours makes this an unlikely occurrence in nature if the sphragis is well formed and would potentially result in the death of one or both butterflies. This process is probably only used as an aid to remove frail sphragides deposited by depleted males Orr b. The satyrine nymphalid H. It does not correspond with all morphological and behavioral adaptations found in other sphragis-bearing butterflies.
That difficulty still haunts his contemporary interpreters. Adams Hawen of Liverpool, who presumably was a competitor on that occasion, is also publishing his poem on the late Laureate. What gives norms—moral norms, political norms, norms of reasoning—their peculiar authority? M, Shay T. If these motifs are the darkened mode of Romantic prophecy, how do the Romantics, and how do we, read for the future? Romnes Fellowship for outstanding scholarship in the humanities. C, Sutton D.
The external female genitalia are virtually unmodified from the condition found in other species of the genus, whereas all other sphragis-bearing species exhibit profound modifications in this structure, especially exhibiting externalization of the ostium Orr However, the highly modified male genitalia are efficient at plug removal. Males bear androconial patches on the wings and exhibit courtship behavior characteristics often found in polygynous species Pliske , although they may facultatively practice aerial capture and forced copulation Orr The evolution of the sphragis was studied in detail by Orr , , b , and Matsumoto , Matsumoto and Suzuki Non-sphragis bearing butterflies in Papilionidae , Pieridae and Nymphalidae were examined for outgroup comparison.
This led to an escalated arms race where female genitalia became more and more externalized, making it more difficult to affix a sphragis, and more heavily armored to protect them from injury during mating attempts that involved the violent removal of a sphragis. Male genitalia became more specialized to produce sphragides that could not be removed, as they reduced their nutritional contribution via the spermatophore, at the same time increasing plug-removing abilities. The female bursa copulatrix became smaller accordingly, leading to the extreme case where it has completely atrophied in C.
Orr suggested this is possibly occurring in certain danaines and also the hyper polyandrous Acraea natalica. Part of the reason for this runaway process and the instability of intermediate conditions may lie in the asymmetry of male and female adaptations Orr Schematic of the possible process of evolution of the sphragis in butterflies. This assumes a selective landscape where females benefit materially from polyandry and males are continually improving plug-removing ability.
Furthermore, Orr suggested that the sphragis evolved independently at least two times in the Papilionidae and two times in Nymphalidae , but recent phylogenetic studies Braby et al. The occurrence of the sphragis in butterfly subfamilies. Dark circles indicate that some species in the clade bear sphragides or a version of it.
Numbers inside the dark circles indicate estimation of minimum number of sphragis evolution events. Numbers under butterfly images indicate sphragis category of that species. Tree adapted from the phylogeny of Heikkila et al. Ventral and parasagittal views of the female genitalia and lateral abdomen with sphragis for Luehdorfia puziloi a, b, c respectively , and Acraea horta d, e, f respectively , showing convergence in externalization of female genitalia, reduction in the size of the bursa copulatrix, and how the genitalia is covered by the sphragis.
Within each of these groups, some species appear to have lost the sphragis completely. For instance, the Parnassius simo group is the only species group in Parnassius that lacks a sphragis. All species of Zerynthia Papilionidae : Parnassiinae appear to be in the process of losing the sphragis with vestiges found in some individuals Matsumoto et al.
Among the described Pierre and Bernaud b Acraea species, at least have a sphragis or a sphragis-like structure although it is unclear whether the sphragis is plesiomorphic for the genus Pierre a. Within Acraea , the A. Phylogenetic analyses of sphragis-bearing taxa, and their close relatives lacking a sphragis, may reveal whether particular cases are plesiomorphic or derived. It could be an indication of strong convergent evolution and positive selection force for the development of complex sphragis structure along butterflies.
Love is blind, as they say, and because love is blind, it often leads to tragedy: to conflicts in which one love is pitted against another love, and something has to give, with suffering guaranteed in any resolution. Love one another, but make not a bond of love: Let it rather be a moving sea between the shores of your souls. Give one another of your bread, but eat not from the same loaf. Sing and dance together and be joyous, but let each of you be alone, Even as the strings of a lute are alone though they quiver with the same music.
For only the hand of Life can contain your hearts. There's nothing you can do that can't be done Nothing you can sing that can't be sung Nothing you can say but you can learn how to play the game It's easy. We all been playing those mind games forever Some kinda druid dudes lifting the veil. Doing the mind guerrilla, Some call it magic — the search for the grail.
Love is the answer and you know that for sure. Love is a flower, you got to let it — you got to let it grow. We have come by curious ways To the Light that holds the days; We have sought in haunts of fear For that all-enfolding sphere: And lo! Deep in every heart it lies With its untranscended skies; For what heaven should bend above Hearts that own the heaven of love?
If you believe in peace , act peacefully; if you believe in love, acting lovingly; if you believe every which way, then act every which way, that's perfectly valid — but don't go out trying to sell your beliefs to the system. You end up contradicting what you profess to believe in, and you set a bum example. If you want to change the world , change yourself. There are three lessons I would write, — Three words — as with a burning pen, In tracings of eternal light Upon the hearts of men. Have Hope. Though clouds environ now, And gladness hides her face in scorn, Put thou the shadow from thy brow, — No night but hath its morn.
Have Faith. Where'er thy bark is driven, — The calm's disport, the tempest's mirth, — Know this: God rules the hosts of heaven, The habitants of earth. Have Love. Not love alone for one, But men, as man, thy brothers call; And scatter, like the circling sun, Thy charities on all.
Thus grave these lessons on thy soul, — Hope, Faith, and Love, — and thou shalt find Strength when life's surges rudest roll, Light when thou else wert blind. Before our lives divide for ever, While time is with us and hands are free , Time, swift to fasten and swift to sever Hand from hand, as we stand by the sea I will say no word that a man might say Whose whole life's love goes down in a day; For this could never have been; and never, Though the gods and the years relent, shall be.
Is it worth a tear, is it worth an hour, To think of things that are well outworn? Of fruitless husk and fugitive flower, The dream foregone and the deed forborne? Though joy be done with and grief be vain, Time shall not sever us wholly in twain; Earth is not spoilt for a single shower; But the rain has ruined the ungrown corn.
I had grown pure as the dawn and the dew, You had grown strong as the sun or the sea. But none shall triumph a whole life through: For death is one, and the fates are three. At the door of life, by the gate of breath, There are worse things waiting for men than death; Death could not sever my soul and you, As these have severed your soul from me.