And what information was worth exchanging anyway? We felt so insignificant, uninformed and unofficial that we were of no use to anyone. And yet we were the target of an uneasy curiosity. Only Ambassador White seemed unconcerned about us. We decided to leave. I felt defeated by the bullies. I felt inadequate even to the task of bearing witness. I returned to the United States, depressed at my sense of failure, disengaged from the American scene, culturally shocked. It helped to find Latin Americans who had come from Argentina or Chile or Nicaragua who knew what we were talking about.
Perhaps our little uproar was bearing witness enough. To my knowledge the family has not been bothered again. And now Stroessner is dead. Even in the USA the sense of conspiracy and distrust persisted. Like many countries with an oppressive government and an impoverished people, there are as many Paraguayans out of the country three million as there are in Paraguay. They learned that two of the principle players in the death of Joelito were in the New York area.
The law provided that if both parties were in the USA, a foreign national could bring suit against another foreign national for crimes committed outside the United States. Pe - a disappeared.
Who can know how much embarrassment or inconvenience the Stroessner regime had in the face of this man, Dr. About three years later, when I had an eighteen month old daughter and was carrying my second, I was asked if I would teach Spanish in a middle school in New Haven a few hours a week. I began the long struggle to motivate my students, to understand what Spanish had to do with their lives, and what the curriculum I was asked to teach had to do with mine. In our seminar this year, our leader--Teacher--has challenged us to look closely at what appears obvious.
She has taught us not to teach the biographies of writers before we teach their writings. It is not their lives which have made them famous, but the effect their words have had on the lives of others. If you want to teach biography, she told us, teach your own. Explain to your students what this literature means to you. Tell them about yourself, and why you teach Spanish. As you explore the writings with your students, questions may arise about the authors, about why they wrote what they wrote. Perhaps then biographical information may be relevant.
I want my students to understand from learning about Latin America what political activism is. I want them to know, especially my African American students who are sensitive to prejudice, to being coerced or ignored by the dominant culture, I want them to know that there are real things to fear, and real ways to fight. I want them to know I recognize their alienation. I want them to understand what it means to be resistant to political oppression.
I want them to know about non-violence and passive resistance and civil disobedience, about civil rights and human rights. I want them to believe in hope, and the righteousness of the underdog. I want their values to be a source of strength to speak honestly for themselves. Many curricula units have been written about Latin America; some are mentioned in this paper. Others can be found in the indices if the Institute. I have included descriptions of mine because they are part of the background from which I write this paper. This is my fourth seminar on Hispanic culture, all through the vehicle of literature.
My study of the story resulted in an annotation of the historical and symbolic references used by Carpentier. The story is an allegory of pilgrimage at the time of the conquest of the Americas, beginning in Spain and travelling to Cuba. The world of 16th century Spain is illuminated as the protagonist travels from Compostela to the West Indies.
I researched the history of European-Indian relations in the southwest, beginning with the prehistoric Anasazi and continuing through the Indian Wars of the late 19th century with the destruction of the Chiricahua and the resettlement of the Navajo after Bosque Redondo. My readings led me to the conflict between Spain and Portugal for possession of South America. Again my interest was on the impact of the collision of two worlds, Europe and America, which had developed separately, and with societal values which sustained their disparate cultures so contrasting, conflicting and polarized that disaster must occur when finally they met.
This point of impact, or to use the science fiction term, first contact, fascinates me. I am still exploring it. I want my students to wonder about it. In our seminar this year on 20th century Latin American writing we have discussed our readings as particularly Latin American in the omnipresent themes of politics and religion which shape the lives of the protagonists. The energy of creation is still fierce; politics, like the earth, is volcanic, and religion is a life force. Political opposition is expected, popular, and does not shirk from human cost. Mythology from Precolumbian peoples is not a quaint and distant story, but an active religious inheritance from ancestors.
North Americans find Latin American politics confusing. We may criticize our own political system as self serving, creating jobs for politicians, and we may not feel that government is immediate to our lives, except in the irony of its failure to provide certain services in contrast to its inability to fail to collect our money, but we don't translate our frustration into motivation. Passionate politics feels immature, unstable. We have a hard time finding any similarity between violence in the United States and violence in Latin America.
Perhaps we are right. They are not alike. North American violence surprises us because we believe that we have the best country on earth, and that our problems can be solved in the polls. We think Latin American violence is avoidable: if only they had education and a democratic constitution; if only they weren't so excitable. But we learn from Octavio Paz that North Americans do not see what they don't want to exist. And we do not see the contradiction between our own lack of faith in the political system and our outrage at Americans who turn to violence.
We must acknowledge that in a pluralistic culture we must protect a diverse collection of rights and varied values equally. We must teach culture without offending; protect the environmental without violating the rights of property owners; defend religious freedom including the absence of religion.
We must mediate between the religious beliefs of those who bestow the right to life with conception and those who construe rights at birth. What have responsibilities to affirmative action. In a society with one value system, these debates are short lived; majority rules. But we no longer live in a society with a majority. All cultures in America are minority. By , Hispanics will outnumber African Americans public radio.
We are coexisting minority cultures and our survival depends on a commitment to mutual understanding which begins with the co education of our children. Multiculturalism and diversity are jargon in the public schools, coined years ago to represent the effort of the American educational system to combat institutionalized racism.
Their intent is to teach children and families of the dominant culture to value minority cultures and traditions. Sometimes this feels unbalanced, unfair. Why, it is asked, do minorities, they , get special attention and we don't? It is intrinsic to being the dominant culture that "normal" be recognized as that which is most prevalent. As long as this is true, the dominant culture literally does not see the world around it. Even a very large culture becomes insular without the influences of "other".
The global village is a string of separate and suspicious villages until the villagers begin to know and accept the traditions of their neighbors as variations on the human condition. With this understanding we teach languages other than English. We begin with food. We learn the names of tapas in Spain and that Mexican cuisine isn't limited to what fits in a tortilla. I find my students parochial, even though they live in a cosmopolitan, though small, city.
They are suspicious about the unfamiliar. So I translate the customs as well as the words, make the traditions parallel. When we eat tapas, the students bring pepperoni and peanuts. Their discomfort about greeting by kissing on the cheek can be reduced if they pair this with their own acceptance of football players patting each other in congratulation, or grandchildren kissing their grandparents.
If they are appalled that gifts brought by the Magi are placed in shoes in exchange for the straw that children had left for the camels, I remind them about the gifts they receive in their Christmas stockings in exchange for the cookies and milk Santa Claus has eaten. When they see themselves reflected in another culture they begin to recognize that we are all the more alike for our differences. I have said that several representative themes are found in Latin American literature. It is the story of a dominant culture, or stories of many cultures with similar conflicts, which struggle to identify themselves, children of native American mothers with European fathers, spouses of kidnapped African slaves, Asian or European refugees of yesterday, parents to children of all races blended to become one race, la raza, inheritors of powerful opposing religious systems, archaic roles of gender and class, all with an eye unblinking to the violence of human existence.
I intend to present the stories in English, as my goal is to make comparison readily accessible. Readings in the original Spanish and using the stories to practice translation can be used with more advanced students. Students will compare texts to understand that history is recorded through the eyes of humans and therefore must be read with an eye toward recognizing that the recorders have made choices in their work. Students will learn that politics is not merely speeches on television, but the dramatic and important shaping of national events. Students will discuss the role of language in the determination of social class.
Students will understand the terms magic--real and fantastic as describing styles of Latin American literature. Students will compare and contrast their own lives with the lives of characters in Latino literature. Students will clarify their understanding of the terms: Latino, LatinAmerican, Hispanic, and Spanish.
Some students will travel to Mexico. It played a major role in the conquest, particularly in Mexico, where the prophesies foretold the arrival of fair haired people who may have been the return of the god, Quetzalcoatl, or may have brought the end of the Fifth Sun, or modern world of the Aztec nation. The Spaniards arrived with a mandate no less powerful than the peoples they met. After eight hundred years of occupation by Muslim invaders, their final expulsion in brought an enormous religious fervor which resulted immediately in the expulsion of all non-Catholics from Spain, and the search for new souls to convert to the only true church.
This passion was fueled as well by the growth of the protestant movement in Europe.
Adininistradorcillos, comet en plala y morir en grillos. It constantly pushes for more production, more consumption and, therefore, more destruction of the Earth. Ni mtruejo sin luna, niferia sroptifa, m piara sin artufta. But he is Jorge Sanz Culpa no tiene quien hace lo que dece.
Spain was intensely religious. The gold taken from the New World was to be used for the purpose of religious expansion and the augmentation of the weakened Catholic church. There was no sense, as we have in modern anthropology, of the intrinsic value of culture and belief systems. The religious blend which resulted from this collision was created at the cost of many lives, huge destruction and time.
It makes a fascinating story. In the literature of Latin America religious themes are common, ancient, blended and modern. To teach these ideas several steps are involved. The first is the ancient beliefs. The two great cultural systems of Latin America before Columbus were the Andean culture which was dominated by the Inca in the fifteenth century, and MesoAmerica, of which the Aztecs held control.
Creation myths and stories of the celestials are available for both areas. When choice arises I will teach Mesoamerica because Mexico is the focus of the last activity: travel. In the story of their origen, The Aztecs, or Mexicas as they called themselves, had wandered for a long time looking for the symbol of the feathered serpent to show them where to build their city. They had come from the mythical Aztlan, on the Pacific coast south of Acapulco, and wandered into the Valley of Mexico.
There they saw an eagle in a cactus, eating a snake. Quetzalcoatl had found their home. The story is written many times. Anaya is Mexican American, that is to say that his ancestral roots are in Mesoamerica, even though his life is in New Mexico. The Hispanic southwestern United States was part of and settled by Mexicans up until the war of To Anaya this is not a quaint story of the ancient gods, but a story of the beginning of his people.
An example of precolumbian religion in modern writing can be found in Elena Garro, "The Fault of the Tlaxcaltecas," a story of the fall of Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital and the site of the modern Mexico city. I have chosen two stories to explore religion post-Columbian. The first is the story of the Virgin of Guadelupe.
She is the patron Saint of Mexico, a vision to a poor Indian, Juan Diego, who was finally able to convince the power of the church to build a church more accessible to the poorer worshippers. Again there are many versions of this story. I plan to tell the story to my students and then read it aloud in Spanish. I will use a text called Realidad y fantas ' a , which also contains "El origen de los Aztecas. The characters in the story take quite literally this beautiful biblical account of the life of Christ, and as it happens in fantastic literature, what is imagined comes true, often with a somewhat gruesome ending.
In order to understand this story, the class will first have to read the story in its original form from the Bible, sections of which can be read in Spanish. History and Politics A second major theme of Latin American literature is history. History is rich and exciting and can be confusing.
The precolumbian history of Mesoamerica, the layers upon layers of civilization, stretches back five thousand years at least, before the Aztecs came to power. Aztec domination of Mesoamerica, though powerful in a way which is reminiscent of the Roman Empire, lasted a short two hundred years, and ended brutally with the Spanish conquest. A curriculum unit has been written about Tenochtitlan and Teotihuacan One of the most intriguing aspects of the conquest is the person Malinche, interpreter and mistress to Cortes.
She spoke several languages because she was the daughter of Aztec nobility, sent off to live in the Yucatan. I intend for my students to contrast the legends of Malinche and Pocahontas. These two famous historical women represent parallel legends in Mexico and in the USA about the role of the native in the conquest of their lands by the Europeans. In the myth of Pocahontas, the daughter of the Indian chief protects the English soldier from death at the hands of the suspicious tribe.
She later marries him and the two worlds coexist, with her marriage to Captain Smith. Malinche also helped and loved the invading European. Sometimes her story is told as a political maneuver for her smaller tribe to be protected from or to gain retribution against the stronger Aztecs. Sometimes she is a harlot, smitten by the beauty of the fair haired Cortes.
She is a slave, a gift, a skilled translator. But the myth always leads to Malinche, willing or no, as the woman who led the enemy to the heart of the Aztec nation, Eve, the ultimate traitor. A legend is a story told about history, but not limited to historical accuracy. In both cases, Pocahontas' and Malinche's, the tribe did not survive.
In both cases the desire of the European was, in fact, for the wealth of the native peoples, in gold or land. And in fact though the destruction of Tenochtitlan was more dramatic, the destruction of the woodland tribes of the Atlantic was more complete. The legend of Pocahontas tells a pretty story of cooperation, like the first Thanksgiving. The legend of Malinche tells of a nation founded on betrayal, a people whose existence was forged in the collision of two societies which could not cooperate. The centuries following the conquest have led to different fates for the people represented by these two women.
In the United States the Indians were pushed out, assimilated and decimated. Unlike the sack of Tenotchitlan it is not a fast and total destruction, but a pattern of decades of small destructions and defeats. Now in the late 20th century we have turned our awareness to the value of other cultures, and as a nation are protecting the people we were heartlessly destroying one hundred years ago.
It happened very differently in land settled by the Spanish. While the British came to establish colonies free from the tyrannies of the crown, the Spanish came for the glory of the crown and especially for the Church. They came for gold and for souls. Unlike the British they did not come with families to begin homesteading.
They found wives and lovers among the people they conquered and began a new race. Mexico especially is a land of mestizos, of European and Indian ancestry. How this is explored with North American children depends on their age. Different scholars describe Malinche in various ways. Octavio Paz makes the conquest violent and sexual. This is not present in the same way in Bernal D'az del Castillo, who says, " I should know; I was there.
I knew her mother. Carlos Fuentes in Buried Mirror has another slant. The most complete seeming and least impassioned was in Cecil Robinson see Bibliography. But, as Paz would say, he is North American and does not see what he does not want to exist. One wonders if the correlative for Paz is to see what he wants to exist. Recent units on Pocahontas are available from the Institute. In ,a seminar on Race and Culture yielded two These explore the development of the legend of Pocahontas irrespective to the paucity of historical fact.
The history of Latin America invariably leads to modern political struggle, violent and non-violent. Much of Latin America still lives in a classist society of haves and have nots. A particularly poignant story is "Es que somos muy pobres It is that we are very poor " by Juan Rulfo. Poverty leaves no alternatives.
The strategy is eerily like those of the dictatorships of the 's in Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile, for example. In Peru, largely as a result of geography, in a country of desert and jungle split in half by the enormous Andes Mountains, there still exist two incompatible cultures. One is the nation of the coastal lowlands, of cities and modern conveniences, of commerce and competitive economics.
The other is the culture of the indigenous peoples who live in the heights of the Andes and the interiors of the jungles in the traditions of their ancestors. Their economy is communal, their life style ancient, traditional, impoverished. There has always been an undercurrent of tension between these two worlds. Jose Maria Arguedas wrote a powerful novel , Deep Rivers , which explores this intolerance.
The Story Teller by Mario Vargas Llosa is about stone age people deep in the rainforests of Peru, on the verge of extinction. A symbolic and dramatic movie, La Muralla Verde, written and directed by Armando Robles Godoy in , is a bold statement about the vanity and power of the political military government and its disregard for the basics of survival.
In the experience of my students a boundary exists between people according to their complexion, particularly heritage from African ancestors. The Hispanic people they know are largely of Puerto Rican ancestry, and experience these sam boundaries. As a result non-English language dominance tends to be equated with complexion in their minds. Perhaps they are exactly right: prejudice, rejection of Other, can stem from any difference, linguistic, racial and cultural are only a few.
It is opne of my goals in this section of the curriculum to untangle these threads so that they may be compared. Many angles to follow up arose; some appear totally random, but caught the attention of the students. Tupac Amaru is a homonym with toopack Two Pack? These two very different forms of protest can be contrasted in discussion. Issues of what is being protested, and how the cultural majority react will bridge two seemingly unrelated events.
The derivation of the names will be a starting point. The available literature of politics is endless. Pablo Neruda in Canto General mentions the political history of most of Latin America in his paean to her. Using selections from this book and the lovely, if historically inaccurate, Italian film by Michael Radford, Il Postino will give students a good sense of the romance and passion of Neruda. Many outstanding films on Latin American politics may be appropriate.
State of Siege by Costa-Gavras leaps to my mind because it was the first I saw, and because the Uruguayan struggle might be called the first of the modern human rights battles in which the USA was implicated on the side of violation. Costa-Gavras has out a new movie called Conspiracy Theory , , which may help students find this material familiar. Elena Poniatowska wrote Massacre in Mexico about non-violent student protest which ended in a massacre of the protesters by over zealous forces at the time of the Mexico City Olympics.
It was the same year as the shooting of four student protesters at Kent State University in Ohio. Seminars from previous years which may prove useful in teaching Latin American history include: Society and Literature in Latin America, Minority Status and Speech What is "proper" speech? An issue which attracts my adolescent students is the problem of the vernacular, resurfacing again in Ebonics.
They identify partly in resistance to the adult world, and partly as a reflex defense of what they see as an attempt to obliterate minority culture. It is an opportunity to teach what we mean by dialect, what we know of the survival of speech patterns from Africa in her descendants in our classes. It is also a chance to reroute the question of "Why can't they learn English. Parallels can be found in the slang of our students, which equally "lose something in translation.
For a more complete understanding of Arguedas read the afterword by Vargas Llosa. Deep Rivers is a challenging book, but many sections of it are pertinent to this unit. In academic circles the bilingual idiom they use is still homeless, yet an increasing number of writers is publishing in it, in response to growth of the popularity of this mode of speech Students can consider the question who invents speech, and who writes dictionaries. They will also recognize language usa as a source of acceptance--or rejection.
Arguedas, as well as many other writers, attacks the problem of minority status, but he experiences the conflict as a genetic member of the dominant society Peruvian aristocracy raised in minority culture Quechua to the degree that he is not accepted by or comfortable in either. Can our students imagine themselves in these shoes? In "Dances with Wolves" a woman has lived with the Sioux so long she does not remember her first language, English. She fears being removed from her home by force by the westward expansion. What happens if a person identifies with a culture despite superficial or physical disparity?
Bernal D'az speaks of Spaniards who had assimilated in the Americas during the discovery and had no interest in returning to their previous lives when the conquistadors came across them. Magic realism and Fantastic Literature Magic realism is the term used to describe the tradition in Latin American writing which does not separate rational reality from dreams, imagination, metaphorical or symbolic or mythical happenings.
Ancestors may be in conversation with their descendents, people may turn into animals, nightmares and dreams come true, metaphors blend into themselves. North American writing is more likely to distinguish between these, allowing rational conscious tangible measurable happenings to be more real or determinant or important than writers using "magical realism.
This, however has no impact on reality, any more than blindness has an impact on light. The works of M. Escher, particularly "Drawing Hands," are for me a visual example of magic realism. Felisberto Hernandez has a similar statement about his work in the introduction to Piano Stories. The tradition in the Caribbean basin, and including Mexico to Colombia was invented by Alejo Carpentier, and called Magic realism.
Another tradition, literature of the fantastic, grew somewhat differently in South America. Characters maintain their personalities, but it is quickly apparent that the setting itself is fantasticor imaginary. Events grow into extensions of their imaginations, fears, dreams or thoughts. Bizarre and often macabre stories result.
The great American master, Edgar Allen Poe, was much admired by these literary greats. The distinction between these two literary genres becomes blurred. Our students are already attracted to the literature of the fantastic, especially in movie form. The devotion to the grisley ghost stories of Stephen King and Alfred Hitchcock is evidence of the North American passion for the fantastic.
Some science fiction might be considered an offshoot of the fantastic. Sections of the book, however, are lyrical descriptions of life growing up on a ranch in Mexico, with a little magic mixed into reality. It fills up the apartment so that the children can boat in it while their unknowing parents are away. It is an easy story to read, only five pages, and students can understand this concept about the elusive edges of reality.
It can be taught first as a metaphor, with students brainstorming sayings which are similes or metaphors of light and water: ie; light pouring in a window, a pool of light, bathed in light, a wash of color, and rainbows. After this activity the class should read the story aloud. The teacher should be forewarned that there is reference to adult sexuality in the story. The story begins with the sentence, "At Christmas the boys asked again for a rowboat. However we are immediately warned to suspend our disbelief, as the parents should have, when we learn that "the boys were more determined than their parents believed.
Like in many other families, their success in school is rewarded in the way they request, and also like many other families, the reward comes through the father's indulgence over the practical objections of the mother, who says, "To begin with, the only navigable water here is what comes out of the shower. The narrator even warns us, ". I did not even have the courage to think about it twice. The boat is stored in the maid's room, since a maid is another thing the family does not have.
Hence we are warned of the possibility of the boys alone without adult supervision. Step by step, one Wednesday evening at a time, we learn that the parents routinely go out to the movies, adult movies like Last Tango in Paris , hence the need for the condoms, leaving the boys alone, and that the boys routinely fill the house with a modest three feet of water at that time, and that the boys always get the reward they ask for when they have excelled in school.
But we the readers are surprised because we do not believe what we have been told: that Madrid is landlocked, that Toto and Joel are skilled boaters, more determined than can be believed, that the boys longed to go farther, and that light is like water.
Follow-up discussion will include a plot summary, then a step by step analysis of when the metaphor becomes reality. As in any reading of Latin American literature, students should identify cultural descriptors: words or actions which are culturally specific, and compare them to their own culture. Parallels in the literature of North America are plentiful.
All the works of Edgar Allen Poe are possibilities. I recommend the book. In "Miss Forbes' Summer of Happiness" an idyllic summer is transformed for two boys by a governess who institutes a militaristic control on their life. When the desire for freedom from tyranny leads them to plot her death, the boundaries between imagination and reality become blurred, and to the surprise of the boys it isn't just their own imagination which has run away with them.
After reading the story, discussion might include: who imagined or fantasized what? What did the boys want? What did Miss Forbes want? What did the boys have to do? What did Miss Forbes have to do? What did the boys plan? What did the boys fear? What really happened to Miss Forbes? In the pursuit of eternal youth there is always peril. Dorian Grey had made a deal with the devil for his own continual youth. In Aura, the aged main character has recreated herself, her youth and perhaps her husband through magical use of drugs and religion.
But the exertion of keeping her young self present is exhausting. The story is told in the second person, as though Aura's late husband were telling it to you, his new replacement. The sexual relationship between Aura and the narrator may deny its usefulness to middle school students. Borges wrote about the fantastic and published collections by other authors. The collection, The Book of Fantasy , which he edited with Silvina Ocampo and Adolfo Bioy Cesares contains the favorite fantastic stories of the three.
It is a stunning volume.
It gives a more extensive meaning to the term. This story, like much of fantastic literature, will be readily enjoyed by our students. It happens that the head of the house hold is beastly himself. He refers to underlying themes of incest, surrealism and psychoanalytic dynamics. It is interesting that he mentions these motivations of Isabel, but merely says that the Kid is cruel; I see him as sadistic and abusive to Rema and Nino.
It is told, Stavans explains from the limited perspective of a child's view, "from the floor up. The reasons are adult; we are told the story through Isabel's mind. She understands that she is difficult to deal with in the summer for a variety of reasons. We know her mother and sister Ines have mixed feelings about her visit to the Funes, that the house is depressing, and Isabel's only companion will be "that boy" We are also warned that the tiger is not a problem because the Funes' are careful in that respect. They play happily together with what they have.
An ant colony becomes their fascination. And we hear, casually, about being careful not to go where the tiger is. Isabel loves and admires Rema. She watches her actions, and is soothed by her touch. Rema's husband Luis and his brother, the Kid, are also there. Luis is remote, quiet, intellectual. The Kid is sadistic, hurting Nino or threatening Rema in a subtle ways which are noticed by Isabel. The routine of the tiger is established midway through the story.
The foreman keeps track of the whereabouts of the tiger and informs whomever he meetx. Isabel soon learns to adjust and who to ask. After a time she becomes one of the trusted sources of knowledge of where the tiger is. She becomes subliminally aware of the tiger, and of the Kid. As the story progresses Isabel begins to draw parallels between the insect life she watches and that of the humans in the house. She mentions hope of escape in relation to the ants. A preying mantis leads her to visions of murder, although we understand that it hurts Isabel to kill an insect.
One day after she has heard Rema crying, Isabel is the one to tell the family where the tiger is. When the Kid enters the library, Isabel is so deeply entranced with the snails she is watching, snails that can escape from their houses, that she does not react to his first scream. She does not move until Rema comes to her, and holds her in a way that Isabel interprets as gratitude and acquiescence. Questions for discussion include, from whose perspective is the story told?
Who is listening? Who is not listening? Does Rema know that Isabel has murdered the Kid? Did Isabel set up the Kid to be killed by the tiger? Is the Kid sexually assaulting his sister in law? Does Luis know how far his brother dares to go? What does Nino know? How does Isabel feel toward her aunt, and how does Rema feel toward her niece?
Who is complicitious in the death of the Kid? Who is oblivious or in denial? Who is the real danger in the story? Does every character agree? In a Kafkaesque way we are never told how or by who this is happening. The story was written during the second dictatorship of Juan Peron, and reflects the steady growth of the regime in the lives of its citizens. The siblings in the story are adult and live together because they never bothered to get married. In discussion with students I will follow up the notion of a steady subtle creeping domination.
I would reiterate some of the questions discussed in "Bestiaray," particularly those alluding to the sense of powerlessness the characters seem to have, their inability to make the evil stop. Who tells this story of "The House Taken Over," and who is listening? I would ask my students if this is a ghost story, and what makes it so or not? What is the function of ghost stories in their lives? What social values of our time do they remind us of? Which of Edgar Allen Poe's stories does this story make us think of? Were the characters party to the loss of their house?
Unfortunately few of his stories are available in English. The Decapitated Chicken contains several stories with children as protagonist, or narrator, in a world of fantasy. There is an excellent and thorough analysis of this story in Peter Beardsell see bibliography. The collection entitled Cuentos de la selva para ni - os was published in Unfortunately these are not yet in English. A unit on Quiroga The valuable information and suggestions in her unit need not be repeated here. Coming of Age in Latino Literature As we embrace the concept of cultural diversity we include more reflections of that diversity through the eyes of our various minorities.
Latino literature in recent years has become more available in the United States, and part of school curricula. This is the story of a minority culture, or several with similar aspects, in response to the dominant culture, trying to find justice or fairness or equality in a society founded at the intersection of racism and open integration. Short stories by Hispanic authors can introduce universal aspects of life to students of Spanish in middle school. They can read in English stories about people they understand, and with whom they may identify.
They will discover cultural differences and make links of cultural similarities. And best of all they will understand that all this foreign language is as American as tortilla chips and salsa, right here in our own lives. I plan to read aloud, or have students read, stories in class each week. The lessons are designed to focus on differences and the ways those differences show us to be alike. My purpose in this section is to provide an opportunity for my students to compare themselves to characters of their own age from literature written about and by Hispanics.
I intend to include a variety of short stories and excerpts from novels. As my goal is to make what is foreign seem familiar, my objectives will be reached by having students compare their own lives to the lives they are reading about. I had hoped originally to find "coming of age" stories from other countries. I came to realize through my reading that "coming of age" as we understand it in the USA is an experience peculiar to us. In other countries the shift from childhood to adulthood is different, perhaps more sudden, sometimes earlier and sometimes later.
The economic needs of society and the traditions which have resulted differ greatly between the Latin and the North American. In stories by Latin Americans, children are often relegated to minor roles "Balthazars' Marvelous Afternoon" , or must assume adult burdens at what we Northerners consider a tender age "Es que somos muy pobres" , below the age of consent Innocent Erendira , minors "The Desert". The stories of adolescents of Hispanic heritage who are living in the USA Latino literature more often reflect the longer passage from child to adult, complicated by the duality of their culture.
Hispanic children and adolescents growing up in the USA have the same problems as other minorities, as we discover all of us are. Real Estate. It is the traditional day on which lovers express their feelings for each other by sending Valentine's cards, flowers, chocolates or offering related gifts. Below you will find an assortment of words and phrases related to the language of love. For information: www. Articles similar to the above may be found at www. Today's colon exchange rate HERE! Subscribe to our daily digest. Search our site.
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En “Cuentos de amor incompatible” Jorge Coriasso nos ejemplifica los motivos por los cuales las parejas de la sociedad moderna, aún aquellas unidas por un. Re:cuentos de amor incompatible spanish edition. Cuentos de amor incompatible Spanish Edition Yes, you get Amor Amor Amor Amor Accordion, Amor.
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It is a state funeral with many dignitaries expected to attend. Three days of national mourning have been decreed. Trejos was president from to He also was a founder of Banco Popular. Trejos also promoted the constitutional barrier that prevented a president from being re-elected. Not until did the Sala IV constitutional court throw out that change. In private life Trejos was a university economics professor and administrator.
Long-time Women's Club member came here in By the A. She had two children, Daniel Masis, now of the Washington, D. The couple met when they both were students at the University of Southern California. Iverson served as vice president. Costa Rica guide This is a brief users guide to A. Old pages Each day someone complains via e-mail that the newspages are from yesterday or the day before. Costa Rica staffers check every page and every link when the newspaper is made available at 2 a. So the problem is with the browser in each reader's computer.
Readers should refresh the page and, if necessary, dump the cache of their computer, if this problem persists. Readers in Costa Rica have this problem frequently because the local Internet provider has continual problems. Searching The A. Costa Rica search page has a list of all previous editions by date and a space to search for specific words and phrases. The search will return links to archived pages.
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View your home from any computer anywhere. By the A. Costa Rica staff Not often do investigators raid the offices of two mayors on the same day. That happened Thursday when prosecutors and agents of the Judicial Investigating Organization paid a very early morning visit to the mayor of the Municipalidad de Talamanca. Later in the morning other agents were taking documents from the mayor of Alajuela. These appear to be two separate cases and unrelated to the detention of the mayor of Liberia a week ago.
The allegations are of corruption, misuse of public money and negotiations incompatible with the elected office. Talamanca is in the southeast of the country. It has a high native population as well as several well-known beach resorts. Agents said a short chase preceded the arrest. Three municipal employees also were detained, said the Poder Judicial. Another person, believed to be the mayor's son, also was detained. The allegation there is abuse of authority. She was not detained, but agents sought documents connected with Comercializadora de Concreto y Asfalto S. The municipality quickly came out with a press release in which it said that municipal officials provided total cooperation to the agents and prosecutors.
The search was at a. Agents took away documents relating to the permissions for construction granted to the company. The streets are alive with the sound of addiction. A cell to the left of me, a cell to the right of me. I am standing at the bus stop next to the Hotel and Hospital Catolica trying to ignore the two women on their cell phones. If they were talking to each other their voices would not be at that pitch. If they were talking on their land phones at home, would they talk this long?
Is it that we are so busy that the only time we have to deal with many things in life or to chat, is enroute? Fortunately, when the bus arrived, both women were off their phones. After buying a few things at the AutoMercado downtown, I caught the Sabana Cementerio bus across town.
It was election day, and the streets were crowded with pedestrians and with cars, cars driven just to be seen flying their partisan flags — and heard — honking their horns rhythmically or in counterpoint. There was no way I was going to take a taxi in this stop-and-go traffic. My bus driver had his radio on playing ranchera music loud enough for the back row to appreciate it. I was two seats behind him, and a young woman kitty corner from me was on her cell phone yelling in Chinese, trying to be heard over the music.
Soon the bus was full, not even standing room left. There were more children than usual, and one of them was shrieking, just for the fun of it. I looked at the crowded sidewalks. Every tenth person was on a cell phone. And besides, I learned a long time ago that there seldom is anger or frustration or threat in any of the noise.
It is just people feeling free.